SXC-2014.12.31 10-K
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission File Number 001-35243
 
 
SUNCOKE ENERGY, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Delaware
 
90-0640593
(State of or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
1011 Warrenville Road, Suite 600
Lisle, Illinois
 
60532
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (630) 824-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
ý
  
Accelerated filer
 
¨
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company, as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of Common Stock (based upon the June 30, 2014, closing price of $21.50 on the New York Stock Exchange) held by non-affiliates was approximately $1,483,508,514.
The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 20, 2015 was 66,309,471.
Portions of the SunCoke Energy, Inc. 2015 definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2014, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.


Table of Contents

SUNCOKE ENERGY, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Table of Contents

PART I
Item 1.
Business
Overview
SunCoke Energy, Inc. (“SunCoke Energy”, “Company”, “we”, “our” and “us”) is the largest independent producer of high-quality coke in the Americas, as measured by tons of coke produced each year, and has more than 50 years of coke production experience. Coke is a principal raw material in the blast furnace steelmaking process. Coke is generally produced by heating metallurgical coal in a refractory oven, which releases certain volatile components from the coal, thus transforming the coal into coke.
We have designed, developed, built, own and operate five cokemaking facilities in the United States (“U.S.”) with collective nameplate capacity to produce approximately 4.2 million tons of coke per year. Additionally, we have designed and operate one cokemaking facility in Brazil under licensing and operating agreements on behalf of our customer. We have a preferred stock investment in the project company that owns this facility, which has approximately 1.7 million tons of annual cokemaking capacity. In March 2013, we formed a cokemaking joint venture with VISA Steel Limited ("VISA Steel") in India called VISA SunCoke Limited ("VISA SunCoke"), which has cokemaking capacity of 440 thousand tons of coke per year.
Our cokemaking ovens utilize efficient, modern heat recovery technology designed to combust the coal’s volatile components liberated during the cokemaking process and use the resulting heat to create steam or electricity for sale. This differs from by-product cokemaking which repurposes the coal’s liberated volatile components for other uses. We have constructed the only greenfield cokemaking facilities in the U.S. in the last 25 years and are the only North American coke producer that utilizes heat recovery technology in the cokemaking process. We believe that heat recovery technology has several advantages over the alternative by-product cokemaking process, including producing higher quality coke, using waste heat to generate steam or electricity for sale and reducing the environmental impact.
Our Granite City facility, the first phase of our Haverhill facility, or Haverhill 1, and our VISA SunCoke joint venture have steam generation facilities which use hot flue gas from the cokemaking process to produce steam for sale to customers pursuant to steam supply and purchase agreements. Granite City and Haverhill 1 sell steam to third-parties and VISA SunCoke sells steam to VISA Steel. Our Middletown facility and the second phase of our Haverhill facility, or Haverhill 2, have cogeneration plants that use the hot flue gas created by the cokemaking process to generate electricity, which is either sold into the regional power market or to AK Steel pursuant to energy sales agreements.
We own and operate coal mining operations in Virginia and West Virginia with more than 110 million tons of proven and probable reserves at December 31, 2014. In 2014, we sold approximately 1.5 million tons of metallurgical coal (including internal sales to our cokemaking operations) and 0.1 million tons of thermal coal. We are pursuing the exit of our coal mining business and have presented the results of our coal operations as discontinued operations and held for sale in the consolidated financial statements.
We also provide coal handling and blending services with our Coal Logistics business. Our terminal located in East Chicago, Indiana, SunCoke Lake Terminal, LLC ("Lake Terminal") provides coal handling and blending services to SunCoke's Indiana Harbor cokemaking operations. Kanawha River Terminals ("KRT") is a leading metallurgical and thermal coal blending and handling terminal service provider with collective capacity to blend and transload 30 million tons of coal annually through operations in West Virginia and Kentucky.
Incorporated in Delaware in 2010 and headquartered in Lisle, Illinois, we became a publicly-traded company in 2011 and our stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “SXC.” As discussed below, our separation (“Separation”) from Sunoco, Inc. (“Sunoco”) was completed in 2012.
Our Separation from Sunoco
On January 17, 2012 (the “Distribution Date”), we became an independent, publicly-traded company following our separation from Sunoco. Our separation from Sunoco occurred in two steps:
We were formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sunoco. On July 18, 2011 (the “Separation Date”), Sunoco contributed the subsidiaries, assets and liabilities that were primarily related to its cokemaking and coal mining operations to us in exchange for shares of our common stock. As of such date, Sunoco owned 100 percent of our common stock. On July 26, 2011, we completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of 13,340,000 shares of our common stock, or 19.1 percent of our outstanding common stock. Following the IPO, Sunoco continued to own 56,660,000 shares of our common stock, or 80.9 percent of our outstanding common stock.
On the Distribution Date, Sunoco made a pro-rata, tax free distribution (the “Distribution”) of the remaining shares of our common stock that it owned in the form of a special stock dividend to Sunoco shareholders. Sunoco

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shareholders received 0.53046456 of a share of common stock for every share of Sunoco common stock held as of the close of business on January 5, 2012, the record date for the Distribution. After the Distribution, Sunoco ceased to own any shares of our common stock.
Formation of a Master Limited Partnership and Dropdown Transactions
On January 24, 2013, we completed the initial public offering of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., a master limited partnership (“the Partnership”), through the sale of 13,500,000 common units of limited partner interests in the Partnership in exchange for $231.8 million of net proceeds (the "Partnership offering"). The key assets of the Partnership at the time of formation were a 65 percent interest in each of our Haverhill and Middletown cokemaking and heat recovery facilities.     In 2014, we contributed an additional 33 percent interest in the Haverhill and Middletown cokemaking facilities to the Partnership for a total transaction value of $365.0 million (the "Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown"). After the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown, SunCoke Energy continued to own a 2.0 percent general partner interest in the Partnership, all of the incentive distribution rights, and a 54.1 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership. Upon the closing of the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown transaction, public unitholders held a 43.9 percent interest in the Partnership, which is reflected as a noncontrolling interest in the consolidated financial statements.
Subsequent to year end, on January 13, 2015, we contributed a 75 percent interest in the Granite City cokemaking facility to the Partnership for a total transaction value of $245.0 million (the "Granite City Dropdown"). The remaining 25 percent interest will continue to be owned by SunCoke Energy. Subsequent to the Granite City Dropdown, we own the general partner of the Partnership, which consists of 2.0 percent ownership interest and incentive distribution rights, and a 56.1 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership. The remaining 41.9 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership is held by public unitholders.
Business Segments
We report our business results through four segments:
Domestic Coke consists of our Jewell, Indiana Harbor, Haverhill, Granite City and Middletown cokemaking and heat recovery operations located in Vansant, Virginia; East Chicago, Indiana; Franklin Furnace, Ohio; Granite City, Illinois; and Middletown, Ohio, respectively.
Brazil Coke consists of our operations in Vitória, Brazil, where we operate a cokemaking facility for a Brazilian subsidiary of ArcelorMittal;
India Coke consists of our cokemaking joint venture with Visa Steel in Odisha, India.
Coal Logistics consists of our coal handling and blending service operations in East Chicago, Indiana; Ceredo, West Virginia; Belle, West Virginia; and Catlettsburg, Kentucky.
For additional information regarding our business segments, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 25 to our consolidated financial statements.

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Cokemaking Operations
The following table sets forth information about our cokemaking facilities:
Facility
 
Location
 
Customer
 
Year of
Start Up
 
Contract
Expiration
 
Number of
Coke Ovens
 
Annual Cokemaking
Capacity
(thousands of tons)
 
Use of Waste Heat
Owned and Operated:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jewell
 
Vansant,
Virginia
 
ArcelorMittal
 
1962
 
2020
 
142
 
720
 
Partially used for thermal coal drying
Indiana Harbor
 
East Chicago,
Indiana
 
ArcelorMittal
 
1998
 
2023
 
268
 
1,220
 
Heat for power generation
Haverhill Phase I
 
Franklin Furnace,
Ohio
 
ArcelorMittal
 
2005
 
2020
 
100
 
550
 
Process steam
Haverhill Phase II
 
Franklin
Furnace, Ohio
 
AK Steel
 
2008
 
2022
 
100
 
550
 
Power generation
Granite City
 
Granite City,
Illinois
 
U.S. Steel
 
2009
 
2025
 
120
 
650
 
Steam for power generation
Middletown(1)
 
Middletown,
Ohio
 
AK Steel
 
2011
 
2032
 
100
 
550
 
Power generation
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
830
 
4,240
 
 
Operated:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitória
 
Vitória, Brazil
 
ArcelorMittal
 
2007
 
2023
 
320
 
1,700
 
Steam for power generation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1,150
 
5,940
 
 
Equity Method Investment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VISA SunCoke(2)
Odisha, India
 
Various
 
2007
 
NA
 
88
 
440
 
Steam for power generation
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1,238
 
6,380
 
 

(1)
Cokemaking capacity represents stated capacity for production of blast furnace coke. Middletown production and sales volumes are based on “run of oven” capacity, which includes both blast furnace coke and small coke. Middletown capacity on a “run of oven” basis is approximately 578 thousand tons per year.
(2)
Cokemaking capacity represents 100 percent of VISA SunCoke, our 49 percent joint venture with VISA Steel formed in March 2013.
We are a technological leader in cokemaking. We believe our advanced heat recovery cokemaking process has numerous advantages over by-product cokemaking, including producing higher quality coke, using waste heat to generate derivative energy for resale and reducing environmental impact. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 specifically directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) to evaluate our heat recovery coke oven technology as a basis for establishing Maximum Achievable Control Technology (“MACT”) standards for new cokemaking facilities. In addition, each of the four cokemaking facilities that we have built since 1990 has either met or exceeded the applicable Best Available Control Technology (“BACT”), or Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (“LAER”) standards, as applicable, set forth by the EPA for cokemaking facilities.
According to CRU, a leading publisher of industry market research, total coke consumption in the U.S. and Canada was an estimated 15.9 million tons in 2013. Approximately 93 percent of demand, or 14.9 million tons, was for blast furnace steelmaking operations and the remaining 7 percent was for foundry and other non-steelmaking operations. CRU expects annual blast furnace steelmaking coke demand in the U.S. and Canada to grow by 1 million tons, or 8 percent, by 2017 driven by a recovery in steel demand over the same time period.
Our core business model is predicated on providing steelmakers an alternative to investing capital in their own captive coke production facilities. We direct our marketing efforts principally towards steelmaking customers that require coke for use in their blast furnaces. According to CRU and company estimates, there is approximately 15.0 million tons of captive cokemaking capacity in the U.S. and Canada. The average age of capacity at these facilities, excluding SunCoke's facilities, is 40 years old, with 26 percent of capacity coming from facilities over 40 years old. As these cokemaking facilities continue to age, they will require replacement, providing us with potential investment opportunities.

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Substantially all our coke sales are made pursuant to long-term take-or-pay agreements with ArcelorMittal, AK Steel and U.S. Steel, who are three of the largest blast furnace steelmakers in North America and each of which individually accounts for greater than ten percent of our consolidated revenues. These coke sales agreements have an average remaining term of approximately ten years and contain pass-through provisions for costs we incur in the cokemaking process, including coal procurement costs, subject to meeting contractual coal-to-coke yields, operating and maintenance expenses, costs related to the transportation of coke to our customers, taxes (other than income taxes) and costs associated with changes in regulation.
The take-or-pay provisions in our coke sales agreements require that our customers either take all of our coke production up to a specified tonnage or pay the contract price for any such coke they elect not to accept. To date, our customers have satisfied their obligations under these agreements. With the exception of our Jewell cokemaking facility, where we mine our own coal, all of our current coke sales agreements also provide for the pass-through of actual coal costs on a delivered basis, subject to meeting contractual coal-to-coke yields. The coal cost component of the coke price under the Jewell coke sales agreement reflects a market price for coal based upon third-party coal purchases under our Haverhill contract with ArcelorMittal. These features of our coke sales agreements reduce our exposure to variability in coal price changes and inflationary costs over the remaining terms of these agreements.
Revenues from our Brazilian cokemaking facility are derived from licensing and operating fees based upon the level of production required by our customer and include the full pass-through of the operating costs of the facility. We also receive an annual preferred dividend on our preferred stock investment in the Brazilian project company that owns the facility. In general, the facility must achieve certain minimum production levels for us to receive the preferred dividend. In recent years, we have reduced production at our Brazilian cokemaking facility at the request of our customer. This decrease to production in prior years did not impact our ability to receive our preferred dividend. In 2014, production returned to historical levels.
Our joint venture investment in VISA SunCoke, located in Odisha, India, generates earnings through heat recovery cokemaking and the associated steam generation units. VISA SunCoke's cokemaking process utilizes heat recovery technology developed in China and has an operating capacity of 440 thousand tons. Our India joint venture strives to sell approximately one-third of its coke production and all of its steam production to VISA Steel with the remainder of the coke production sold in the spot market. While VISA SunCoke continues to operate well and has mitigated foreign currency risk, the joint venture has faced a number of coke business headwinds including restrictions on iron ore mining, which had limited steel production, but were recently lifted, and a continuing weak coke pricing environment due to increased Chinese coke imports.
Coal Logistics Operations
During 2013, we expanded our operations into the coal logistics market through the acquisitions of KRT and Lake Terminal. Coal is transported from the mine site in numerous ways, including rail, truck, barge or ship. Coal terminals act as intermediaries between coal producers and coal end users by providing transloading, storage and blending services. As a result of these acquisitions, we now own and operate four coal handling terminals with the collective capacity to blend and transload more than 30 million tons of coal annually and store 1.5 million tons. We do not take possession of coal but instead derive our revenue by providing coal handling and blending services to our customers on a per ton basis. Our coal blending and handling services are provided to steel, coke (including some of our domestic cokemaking facilities) and electric utility customers.
Discontinued Coal Mining Operations
Our underground metallurgical coal mining operations are located near our Jewell cokemaking facility. Coal mining production was 1.2 million tons in 2014. In 2014, 65 percent of the coal was used by our Jewell cokemaking facility, 17 percent was used at our other domestic cokemaking facilities, and the remaining 18 percent was sold to third parties. Intersegment coal revenues for sales to our Domestic Coke segment are based on prices that third parties, or coke customers of our Domestic Coke segment, have agreed to pay for our coal and approximate the market price for the applicable quality of metallurgical coal. Most of the coal sales to these third parties and facilities are under contracts with one year terms, and, as a result, coal revenues lag the market for spot coal prices.
In 2011, we engaged Marshall Miller & Associates, Inc., a leading mining engineering firm, to conduct a comprehensive study to determine our proven and probable reserves for our coal mines. This study determined that we controlled proven and probable coal reserves of approximately 114 million tons as of December 31, 2011. Since 2011, we estimate that we have mined approximately 4 million tons of coal from these proven and probable reserves. At December 31, 2014, we control proven and probable coal reserves of approximately 110 million tons, including approximately 19 million tons of proven and probable coal reserves at our Harold Keene Coal Companies ("HKCC") located in Russell and Buchanan Counties in Virginia, contiguous to our existing metallurgical coal mining operations. We control a significant portion of our coal reserves through private leases. Substantially all of the leases are “life of mine” agreements that extend our mining rights until all reserves have been recovered. These leases convey mining rights to us in exchange for royalties and/or fixed fee payments.

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On July 17, 2014, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the Company to sell and/or otherwise dispose of the Company’s coal mining business.  Concurrent with this authorization, the coal mining operations were, and continue to be, reflected as discontinued operations and the related net assets are presented as held for sale in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The coal mining net assets and results of operations for all periods presented have been reclassified to reflect discontinued operations and held for sale presentation. Certain legacy coal mining assets (i.e. coal preparation plant) and liabilities (i.e. black lung, workers' compensation, certain asset retirement obligations and net pension and other postretirement employee benefit obligations) are expected to be retained by the Company and are not part of the disposal group, and therefore are reported as continuing operations in Corporate and Other, along with their related costs.
During 2014, the Company recorded total impairment charges related to the coal business of $150.3 million, including both long-lived asset and goodwill impairment charges as well as valuation impairment charges on the disposal group, which is stated at fair value less costs to sell. Of these total charges, $133.5 million, or $81.9 million, net of tax, was related to the disposal group and was recorded in loss from discontinued operations, net of tax. The remaining $16.8 million impairment charge related to the coal preparation plant, which was considered a legacy asset, and was recorded in asset impairment on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
We have been actively marketing the sale of the coal mining business but believe the increasingly difficult coal pricing environment impeded the sale of the entire coal business in 2014, although we did execute a definitive agreement to sell HKCC in the fourth quarter of 2014. We will continue to pursue the sale of the remaining coal mining business in 2015. To help minimize losses, while still providing a cost effective and reliable supply of coal to our Jewell cokemaking facility, we implemented a coal rationalization plan in December 2014. Under the coal rationalization plan, we will source a portion of the coal from external coal suppliers and will implement a contract mining model, which will use contract miners to mine our coal reserves. As part of this coal rationalization plan, we will idle various mines and reduce production by approximately 50 percent, transition coal washing activities to a third party provider and eliminate nearly 400 coal mining positions, for which the Company has recorded $11.3 million in severance costs in 2014. We anticipate these actions will be completed in the first half of 2015.
The Company currently estimates that it will incur total pre-tax exit and disposal costs in the range of $20 million to $23 million, including employee severance and other one-time costs to idle mines of approximately $12 million to $15 million and contract termination costs of approximately $8 million.  The Company has recorded $12.5 million in employee-related costs, including the severance discussed above and $1.2 million of retention packages, and $6.0 million in contract termination costs in 2014. These total costs of $18.5 million, or $11.3 million, net of tax, are included in loss from discontinued operations, net of tax on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.  The Company expects to record the remaining exit and disposal costs in 2015. The foregoing are estimates and the total actual costs relating to these actions will be recorded when the Company has finalized the sale/disposition plan. 
The Company also plans to decommission the existing coal preparation plant and utilize third parties for coal washing, resulting in approximately $7.7 million of depreciation of the preparation plant assets expected to be recorded during 2015. Utilizing the former site of the preparation plant, we plan to install additional coal handling and storage facilities to enable third-party coal purchases for our Jewell cokemaking facility. The anticipated impact to our Jewell cokemaking facility of the separation from our coal business is estimated to be approximately $7.5 million annually, primarily due to coal blending and handling costs, higher purchased coal tons due to coal moisture levels and incremental employee costs. On a consolidated basis, assuming current market conditions, we anticipate these actions will result in annual run-rate cash and Adjusted EBITDA savings of approximately $20 million by late 2015.
Seasonality
Our revenues in our cokemaking business are tied to long-term take-or-pay contracts and as such, are not seasonal. However, our profitability is tied to coal-to-coke yields, which improve in drier weather. Accordingly, the coal-to coke yield component of our profitability tends to be more favorable in the third quarter. Extreme weather in the winter months may also challenge our operations in the first quarter.
Raw Materials
Metallurgical coal is the principal raw material for our cokemaking operations. Except for our Jewell cokemaking facility, where we internally supply a substantial amount of the metallurgical coal from our coal mining operations discussed above, most of the metallurgical coal used to produce coke at our domestic cokemaking facilities is purchased from third parties. We believe there is an ample supply of metallurgical coal available in the U.S. and worldwide, and we have been able to supply coal to our domestic cokemaking facilities without any significant disruption in coke production.
Each ton of coke produced at our facilities requires approximately 1.4 tons of metallurgical coal. We purchased 5.3 million tons of metallurgical coal in 2014. Additionally, our discontinued coal mining business mined 1.2 million tons and

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purchased 0.5 million tons, of which 1.4 million tons were used by our Domestic Coke segment and 0.3 million tons were sold to third parties.
Coal from third parties is generally purchased on an annual basis via one-year contracts with costs passed through to our customers in accordance with the applicable coke sales agreements. Occasionally, shortfalls in deliveries by coal suppliers require us to procure supplemental coal volumes. As with typical annual purchases, the cost of these supplemental purchases is also passed through to our customers. Most coal procurement decisions are made through a coal committee structure with customer participation. The customer can generally exercise an overriding vote on most coal procurement decisions.
While we generally pass coal costs through to our coke customers, all of our contracts include some form of coal-to-coke yield standard. To the extent that our actual yields are less than the standard in the contract, we are at risk for the cost of the excess coal used in the cokemaking process. Conversely, to the extent actual yields are higher than contractual standards we are able to realize higher margins.
Transportation and Freight
For inbound transportation of coal purchases, our facilities that access a single rail provider have long-term transportation agreements, and where necessary, coal-blending agreements that run concurrently with the associated coke sales agreement for the facility. At facilities with multiple transportation options, including rail and barge, we enter into short-term transportation contracts from year to year. For coke sales, the point of delivery varies by agreement and facility. The point of delivery for coke sales to subsidiaries of ArcelorMittal from our Jewell and Haverhill 1 cokemaking facilities is generally designated by the customer and shipments are made by railcar under long-term transportation agreements held by us. All delivery costs are passed through to the customers. Sales to AK Steel from our Haverhill 2 cokemaking facility are made with the customer arranging for transportation. At our Middletown, Indiana Harbor and Granite City cokemaking facilities, coke is delivered primarily by a conveyor belt leading to the customer’s blast furnace. All transportation and freight costs in our Coal Logistics segment are paid by the customer directly to the transportation provider.
Research and Development and Intellectual Property and Proprietary Rights
Our research and development program seeks to develop promising new cokemaking technologies and improve our heat recovery processes. Over the years, this program has produced numerous patents related to our heat recovery coking design and operation, including patents for pollution control systems, oven pushing and charging mechanisms, oven flue gas control mechanisms and various others.
At Indiana Harbor and Vitória, Brazil, where we do not own 100 percent of the entity owning the cokemaking facility, we have licensing agreements in place for the entity’s use of our technology. At Indiana Harbor, we receive no payment for the licensing rights. At Vitória, we receive a licensing fee that is payable in conjunction with the operation of the facility. We expect the Brazilian licensing agreement to continue through at least 2022.  At VISA SunCoke, our joint venture with VISA Steel in India, our technology is not currently in use, but the parties have agreed to enter into a license agreement should our technology be used in the future.  
In conjunction with the formation of the Partnership, we are party to an omnibus agreement which grants the Partnership a royalty-free license to use the name “SunCoke” and related trademarks. Additionally, the omnibus agreement grants the Partnership a non-exclusive right to use all of our current and future cokemaking and related technology necessary for their operations.
Competition
Cokemaking
The cokemaking business is highly competitive. Most of the world’s coke production capacity is owned by blast furnace steel companies utilizing by-product coke oven technology. The international merchant coke market is largely supplied by Chinese, Indian, Colombian and Ukrainian producers among others.
Current production from our domestic cokemaking business and Brazil is largely committed under long-term contracts. As a result, competition mainly affects our ability to obtain new contracts supporting development of additional cokemaking capacity as well as the sale of coke in the spot market. Our India joint venture strives to sell approximately one-third of its coke production and all of its steam production to VISA Steel with the remainder of the coke production sold in the spot market. The principal competitive factors affecting our cokemaking business include coke quality and price, technology, reliability of supply, proximity to market, access to metallurgical coals and environmental performance. Competitors include by-product coke oven engineering and construction companies, as well as merchant coke producers. Specifically, Chinese and Indian companies have designed and built heat recovery facilities in China, India and Brazil for local steelmakers. Some of these design firms operate only on a local or regional basis while others, such as certain Chinese, German and Italian design companies, operate globally.

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In the past there have been technologies which have sought to produce carbonaceous substitutes for coke in the blast furnace.  While none have proven commercially viable thus far, we monitor the development of competing technologies carefully.  We monitor ferrous technologies, such as direct reduction iron production ("DRI"), as these could indirectly impact our blast furnace customers.  Furthermore, new alternative iron making technologies could impact future projects in iron pellets and DRI.
We believe we are well-positioned to compete with other coke producers. Our facilities were constructed using proven, industry-leading technology with many proprietary features allowing us to produce consistently higher quality coke than our competitors produce as well as ratable quantities of heat that can be utilized as industrial grade steam or converted into electrical power.
Coal Logistics
The coal blending and handling service market is highly competitive in the geographic area of our operations. Our competitors are generally located within 100 miles of our operations on the Ohio, Big Sandy, or Kanawha Rivers or on the CSX or Norfolk Southern rail lines. The principal competitive factors affecting our coal logistics business include proximity to the source of coal as well as the nature and price of our services provided. We believe we are well-positioned to compete with other coal blending and handling terminal service providers. Our largest terminal has state-of-the-art blending capabilities with fully automated and computer controlled blending that blends coal to within two percent accuracy of customer specifications. We also have the ability to provide pad storage and have access to both CSX and Norfolk Southern rail lines as well as the Ohio River system.
Employees
As of December 31, 2014, we have approximately 1,202 employees in the U.S. Approximately 26 percent of our domestic employees, principally at our cokemaking operations, are represented by the United Steelworkers under various contracts. Additionally, approximately 2 percent of our domestic employees are represented by the International Union of Operating Engineers. On August 16, 2014, we reached a new three year labor agreement for our Granite City location, which will expire on August 31, 2017. The labor agreements at our Indiana Harbor and Haverhill cokemaking facilities expire on August 31, 2015 and October 31, 2015, respectively. As of December 31, 2014, we have approximately 278 employees at the cokemaking facility in Vitória, Brazil, all of whom are represented by a union under an agreement that expires on October 31, 2015. We will be working on the renewal of these agreements in 2015 and do not anticipate any work stoppages.
Arrangements and Transactions Between Sunoco and SunCoke Energy, Inc.
In connection with the IPO, SunCoke Energy and Sunoco entered into certain agreements that effected the Separation, provided a framework for our relationship with Sunoco after the separation and provided for the allocation between SunCoke Energy and Sunoco of Sunoco’s assets, employees, liabilities and obligations attributable to periods prior to, at and after the Separation.
On the Separation Date, SunCoke Energy and Sunoco entered into a guaranty, keep well, and indemnification agreement. Under this agreement, SunCoke Energy: (1) guarantees the performance of certain obligations of its subsidiaries, prior to the date that Sunoco or its affiliates may become obligated to pay or perform such obligations, including the repayment of a loan from Indiana Harbor Coke Company L.P.; (2) indemnifies, defends, and holds Sunoco and its affiliates harmless against all liabilities relating to these obligations; and (3) restricts the assets, debts, liabilities and business activities of one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries, so long as certain obligations of such subsidiary remain unpaid or unperformed. In addition, SunCoke Energy released Sunoco from its guaranty of payment of a promissory note owed by one of its subsidiaries to another of its subsidiaries.
Legal and Regulatory Requirements
The following discussion summarizes the principal legal and regulatory requirements that we believe may significantly affect us.
Permitting and Bonding
Permitting Process for Cokemaking Facilities. The permitting process for our cokemaking facilities is administered by the individual states. However, the main requirements for obtaining environmental construction and operating permits are found in the federal regulations. Once all requirements are satisfied, a state or local agency produces an initial draft permit. Generally, the facility reviews and comments on the initial draft. After accepting or rejecting the facility’s comments, the agency typically publishes a notice regarding the issuance of the draft permit and makes the permit and supporting documents available for public review and comment. A public hearing may be scheduled, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") also has the opportunity to comment on the draft permit. The state or local agency responds to comments on the draft permit

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and may make revisions before a final construction permit is issued. A construction permit allows construction and commencement of operations of the facility and is generally valid for at least 18 months. Generally, construction commences during this period, while many states allow this period to be extended in certain situations.
Air quality. Our cokemaking facilities employ Maximum Available Control Technology (“MACT”) standards designed to limit emissions of certain hazardous air pollutants. Specific MACT standards apply to door leaks, charging, oven pressure, pushing and quenching. Certain MACT standards for new cokemaking facilities were developed using test data from SunCoke's Jewell cokemaking facility located in Vansant, Virginia. Under applicable federal air quality regulations, permitting requirements may differ among facilities, depending upon whether the cokemaking facility will be located in an “attainment” area—i.e., one that meets the national ambient air quality standards (“NAAQS”) for certain pollutants, or in a “non-attainment” or "unclassifiable" area. In an attainment area, the facility must install air pollution control equipment or employ Best Available Control Technology (“BACT”). In a non-attainment area, the facility must install air pollution control equipment or employ procedures that meet Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (“LAER”) standards. LAER standards are the most stringent emission limitation achieved in practice by existing facilities. Unlike the BACT analysis, cost is generally not considered as part of a LAER analysis, and emissions in a non-attainment area must be offset by emission reductions obtained from other sources.
Stringent NAAQS for ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide went into effect in 2010. In 2012, a NAAQS for fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5, went into effect. In December 2014, the EPA proposed a new and more stringent NAAQS for ozone. This proposal will undergo public comment. These new standards and any future more stringent standard for ozone have two impacts on permitting: (1) demonstrating compliance with the standard using dispersion modeling from a new facility will be more difficult; and (2) additional areas of the country may become designated as non-attainment areas. Facilities operating in areas that become non-attainment areas due to the application of new standards may be required to install Reasonably Available Control Technology (“RACT”).
The EPA adopted a rule in 2010 requiring a new facility that is a major source of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) to install equipment or employ BACT procedures. Currently, there is little information on what may be acceptable as BACT to control GHGs (primarily carbon dioxide from our facilities), but the database and additional guidance may be enhanced in the future.
Several states have additional requirements and standards other than those in the federal statutes and regulations. Many states have lists of “air toxics” with emission limitations determined by dispersion modeling. States also often have specific regulations that deal with visible emissions, odors and nuisance. In some cases, the state delegates some or all of these functions to local agencies.
Wastewater and Stormwater. Our heat recovery cokemaking technology does not produce process wastewater as is typically associated with by-product cokemaking. Our cokemaking facilities, in some cases, have wastewater discharge and stormwater permits.
Waste. The primary solid waste product from our heat recovery cokemaking technology is calcium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization, which is generally taken to a solid waste landfill. The material from periodic cleaning of heat recovery steam generators is disposed of as hazardous waste. On the whole, our heat recovery cokemaking process does not generate substantial quantities of hazardous waste.
U.S. Endangered Species Act. The U.S. Endangered Species Act and certain counterpart state regulations are intended to protect species whose populations allow for categorization as either endangered or threatened. With respect to permitting additional cokemaking facilities, protection of endangered or threatened species may have the effect of prohibiting, limiting the extent of or placing permitting conditions on soil removal, road building and other activities in areas containing the affected species. Based on the species that have been designated as endangered or threatened on our properties and the current application of these laws and regulations, we do not believe that they are likely to have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Permitting Process for Coal Mining Operations. The U.S. coal mining permit application process is initiated by collecting baseline data to adequately assess and model the pre-mine environmental condition of the permit area, including geologic data, soil and rock structures, cultural resources, soils, surface and ground water hydrology, and coal that we intend to mine. We use this data to develop a mine and reclamation plan, which incorporate provisions of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (“SMCRA”), state programs and complementary environmental programs that impact coal mining. The permit application includes the mine and reclamation plan, documents defining ownership and agreements pertaining to coal, minerals, oil and gas, water rights, rights of way and surface land and documents required by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and

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Enforcement’s (“OSM’s”) Applicant Violator System. Once a permit application is submitted to the regulatory agency, it goes through a completeness and technical review before a public notice and comment period. Some SMCRA mine permits take over a year to prepare, depending on the size and complexity of the mine, and often take six months to two years to be issued. Regulatory authorities have considerable discretion in the timing of the permit issuance and the public has the right to comment on and otherwise engage in the permitting process, including through public hearings and intervention in the courts.
Bonding Requirements for Coal Mining Operations Permits. Before a SMCRA permit is issued, a mine operator must submit a bond or other form of financial security to guarantee the payment and performance of certain long-term mine closure and reclamation obligations. The costs of these bonds or other forms of financial security have fluctuated in recent years and the market terms of surety bonds generally have become more unfavorable to mine operators. Surety providers are requiring greater amounts of collateral to secure a bond, which has required us to provide increasing quantities of cash to collateralize bonds or other forms of financial security to allow us to continue mining. These changes in the terms of the bonds have been accompanied, at times, by a decrease in the number of companies willing to issue surety bonds. As of December 31, 2014, we have posted an aggregate of approximately $46 million in surety bonds or other forms of financial security for reclamation purposes.
Regulation of Operations
Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act and similar state laws and regulations affect our cokemaking operations, primarily through permitting and/or emissions control requirements relating to particulate matter (“PM”) and sulfur dioxide (“SO2”). The Clean Air Act air emissions programs that may affect our operations, directly or indirectly, include, but are not limited to: the Acid Rain Program; NAAQS implementation for SO2, PM and nitrogen oxides (“NOx”); GHG rules; the Clean Air Interstate Rule; MACT emissions limits for hazardous air pollutants; the Regional Haze Program; New Source Performance Standards (“NSPS”); and New Source Review. The Clean Air Act requires, among other things, the regulation of hazardous air pollutants through the development and promulgation of various industry-specific MACT standards. Our cokemaking facilities are subject to two categories of MACT standards. The first category applies to pushing and quenching. The EPA is to make a risk-based determination for pushing and quenching emissions and determine whether additional emissions reductions are necessary, but the EPA has yet to publish or propose any residual risk standards; therefore, the impact of potential additional EPA regulation in this area cannot be estimated at this time. The second category of MACT standards applicable to our cokemaking facilities applies to emissions from charging and coke oven doors.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) regulates the sales of electricity from our Haverhill and Middletown facilities, including the implementation of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”) and the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (“PURPA”). The nature of the operations of the Haverhill and Middletown facilities makes each facility a qualifying facility under PURPA, which exempts the facilities and the Company from certain regulatory burdens, including the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 (“PUHCA”), limited provisions of the FPA, and certain state laws and regulation. FERC has granted requests for authority to sell electricity from the Haverhill and Middletown facilities at market-based rates and the entities are subject to FERC’s market-based rate regulations, which require regular regulatory compliance filings.
Clean Water Act of 1972. Although our cokemaking facilities generally do not have water discharge permits, the Clean Water Act (“CWA”) may affect our operations by requiring water quality standards generally and through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”). Regular monitoring, reporting requirements and performance standards are requirements of NPDES permits that govern the discharge of pollutants into water. Discharges must either meet state water quality standards or be authorized through available regulatory processes such as alternate standards or variances. Additionally, through the CWA Section 401 certification program, states have approval authority over federal permits or licenses that might result in a discharge to their waters.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. We may generate wastes, including “solid” wastes and “hazardous” wastes that are subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes, although certain mining and mineral beneficiation wastes and certain wastes derived from the combustion of coal currently are exempt from regulation as hazardous wastes under RCRA. The EPA has limited the disposal options for certain wastes that are designated as hazardous wastes under RCRA. Furthermore, it is possible that certain wastes generated by our operations that currently are exempt from regulation as hazardous wastes may in the future be designated as hazardous wastes, and therefore be subject to more rigorous and costly management, disposal and clean-up requirements.

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Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as Superfund, and similar state laws, responsibility for the entire cost of clean-up of a contaminated site, as well as natural resource damages, can be imposed upon current or former site owners or operators, or upon any party who released one or more designated “hazardous substances” at the site, regardless of the lawfulness of the original activities that led to the contamination. In the course of our operations we may have generated and may generate wastes that fall within CERCLA’s definition of hazardous substances. We also may be an owner or operator, or a past owner or operator, of facilities at which hazardous substances have been released. Under CERCLA, we may be responsible for all or part of the costs of cleaning up facilities at which such substances have been released and for natural resource damages. We also must comply with reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act.
Climate Change Legislation and Regulations. Our facilities are presently subject to the GHG reporting rule, which obligates us to report annual emissions of GHGs. The EPA also finalized a rule in 2010 requiring a new facility that is a major source of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) to install equipment or employ BACT procedures. Currently there is little information as to what may constitute BACT for GHG in most industries. We may also be subject to the EPA’s “Tailoring Rule,” where certain modifications to our facilities could subject us to the additional permitting and other obligations relative to emissions of GSGs under the New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (NSR/PSD) and Title V programs of the Clean Air Act based on whether the facility triggered NSR/PSD because of emissions of another pollutant such as SO2, NOx, PM, ozone or lead. The EPA has engaged in rulemakings to regulate GHG emissions from existing and new coal fired power plants, and we expect continued legal challenges to this rulemaking and any future rulemaking for other industries. For instance, on June 2, 2014, the EPA announced the Clean Power Plan, which proposes to limit CO2 emissions from existing power plants. The plan proposes a national carbon pollution standard that would, by 2030, cut emissions produced by U.S. power plants by 30% from 2005 levels. The final rule is expected to be issued in mid-summer 2015 and the emission reductions are scheduled to commence in 2020. A legal challenge to the proposed rulemaking has already been filed; other legal challenges are likely. Currently, we do not anticipate these new or existing power plan GHG rules to apply directly to our facilities, the impact of and future GHG-related legislation and regulations on us will depend on a number of factors, including whether GHG sources in multiple sectors of the economy are regulated, the overall GHG emissions cap level, the degree to which GHG offsets are allowed, the allocation of emission allowances to specific sources, actions by the states in implementing these requirements and the indirect impact of carbon regulation on coal prices. We may not recover the costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements imposed on us from our customers due to limitations in our agreements. The imposition of a carbon tax or similar regulation could materially and adversely affect our revenues.
Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (the “Miner Act”), has increased significantly the enforcement of safety and health standards and imposed safety and health standards on all aspects of mining operations. There also has been a significant increase in the dollar penalties assessed for citations issued.
Use of Explosives. Our limited surface mining operations are subject to numerous regulations relating to blasting activities. Pursuant to these regulations, we incur costs to design and implement blast schedules and to conduct pre-blast surveys and blast monitoring. In addition, the storage of explosives is subject to strict regulatory requirements established by four different federal regulatory agencies.
Reclamation and Remediation
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The SMCRA established comprehensive operational, environmental, reclamation and closure standards for all aspects of U.S. surface mining as well as many aspects of deep mining. Where state regulatory agencies have adopted federal mining programs under SMCRA, the state becomes the regulatory authority, and states that operate federally approved state programs may impose standards that are more stringent than the requirements of SMCRA. Permitting under SMCRA generally has become more difficult in recent years, which adversely affects the cost and availability of coal. The Abandoned Mine Land Fund, which is part of SMCRA, assesses a fee on all coal produced in the U.S. From October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012, the fee was $0.315 per ton of surface-mined coal and $0.135 per ton of underground mined coal. From October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2021, the fee has been reduced to $0.28 per ton of surface-mined coal and $0.12 per ton of underground mined coal. Our reclamation obligations under applicable environmental laws could be substantial. Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required to account for the costs related to the closure of mines and the reclamation of the land upon exhaustion of coal reserves. The fair value of an asset retirement obligation is recognized in the period in which it is incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. The present value of the estimated asset retirement costs is

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capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset. At December 31, 2014, we had asset retirement obligation of $14.4 million related to estimated mine reclamation costs. The amounts recorded are dependent upon a number of variables, including the estimated future retirement costs, estimated proven reserves, assumptions involving profit margins, inflation rates, and the assumed credit-adjusted interest rates. Our future operating results would be adversely affected if these accruals were determined to be insufficient. These obligations are unfunded. Further, although specific criteria varies from state to state as to what constitutes an “owner” or “controller” relationship, under SMCRA the responsibility for reclamation or remediation, unabated violations, unpaid civil penalties and unpaid reclamation fees of independent contract mine operators can be imputed to other companies which are deemed, according to the regulations, to have “owned” or “controlled” the contract mine operator. Sanctions are quite severe and can include being denied new permits, permit amendments, permit revisions and revocation or suspension of permits issued since the violation or penalty or fee due date.
Black Lung Benefits Revenue Act of 1977 and Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977, as amended in 1981. Under these laws, each U.S. coal mine operator must pay federal black lung benefits and medical expenses to claimants who are current and former employees and last worked for the operator after July 1, 1973. Coal mine operators also must make payments to a trust fund for the payment of benefits and medical expenses to claimants who last worked in the coal industry prior to July 1, 1973. The trust fund is funded by an excise tax on U.S. coal production of up to $1.10 per ton for deep-mined coal and up to $0.55 per ton for surface-mined coal, neither amount to exceed 4.4 percent of the gross sales price. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”), which was implemented in 2010, amended previous legislation and provides for the automatic extension of awarded lifetime benefits to surviving spouses and changes the legal criteria used to assess and award claims. Our obligation related to black lung benefits is estimated based on various assumptions, including actuarial estimates, discount rates, changes in health care costs and the impact of PPACA.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as Superfund, and similar state laws, responsibility for the entire cost of clean-up of a contaminated site, as well as natural resource damages, can be imposed upon current or former site owners or operators, or upon any party who released one or more designated “hazardous substances” at the site, regardless of the lawfulness of the original activities that led to the contamination. In the course of our operations we may have generated and may generate wastes that fall within CERCLA’s definition of hazardous substances. We also may be an owner or operator of facilities at which hazardous substances have been released by previous owners or operators. Under CERCLA, we may be responsible for all or part of the costs of cleaning up facilities at which such substances have been released and for natural resource damages. We also must comply with reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act.
Environmental Matters and Compliance
Our failure to comply with the aforementioned requirements may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of clean-up and site restoration costs and liens, the issuance of injunctions to limit or cease operations, the suspension or revocation of permits and other enforcement measures that could have the effect of limiting production from our operations. Please see Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the Notices of Violation (“NOVs”) issued by the EPA and state regulators for our Haverhill, Granite City, and Indiana Harbor cokemaking facilities.
Many other legal and administrative proceedings are pending or may be brought against us arising out of our current and past operations, including matters related to commercial and tax disputes, product liability, antitrust, employment claims, natural resource damage claims, premises-liability claims, allegations of exposures of third parties to toxic substances and general environmental claims. Although the ultimate outcome of these proceedings cannot be ascertained at this time, it is reasonably possible that some of them could be resolved unfavorably to us. Management of the Company believes that any liability which may arise from such matters would not be material in relation to the financial position, results of operations or cash flows of the Company at December 31, 2014.
Available Information
We make available free of charge on our website, www.suncoke.com, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").

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Executive Officers of the Registrant
Our executive officers and their ages as of February 24, 2015 were as follows:
Name
Age

Position
Frederick A. Henderson
56

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Michael J. Thomson
56

President and Chief Operating Officer
Denise R. Cade
52

Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Corporate Secretary and Chief Compliance Officer
Fay West
45

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Allison S. Lausas
35

Vice President and Controller
Frederick A. Henderson. Mr. Henderson was elected as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of SunCoke Energy, Inc. in December 2010. He also served as a Senior Vice President of Sunoco, Inc. (a transportation fuel provider with interests in logistics) from September 2010 until our initial public offering in July 2011. In July 2012, Mr. Henderson was named Chief Executive Officer and appointed as Chairman of the Board of Directors of SunCoke Energy Partners GP, LLC, the general partner of the publicly traded master limited partnership of which we are the sponsor. From February 2010 until September 2010, he was a consultant for General Motors LLC, and from March 2010 until August 2010, he was a consultant for AlixPartners LLC (a business consulting firm). He was President and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors (a global automotive company) from April 2009 until December 2009. He was President and Chief Operating Officer of General Motors from March 2008 until March 2009. He was Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of General Motors from January 2006 until February 2008. He was Chairman of General Motors Europe from June 2004 until December 2005. Mr. Henderson is a director of Marriott International, Inc. (a worldwide lodging and hospitality services company), where he serves as chair of the Audit Committee. Mr. Henderson also is a trustee of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and chair of its Audit Committee. Mr. Henderson previously served as a Director of Compuware Corporation (from 2011-2014), a technology performance company; he served as chair of its Audit Committee and as a member of its Nominating/Governance and Advisory Committees.
Michael J. Thomson. Mr. Thomson was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer, SunCoke Energy, Inc., in December 2010. In addition, Mr. Thomson was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer and named to the Board of Directors of SunCoke Energy Partners GP LLC, the general partner of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., in July 2012. From May 2008 until December 2010, he served as President, SunCoke Technology and Development LLC. He was Vice President and Executive Vice President, SunCoke Technology and Development LLC from March 2007 to May 2008 and held the additional position of Chief Operating Officer of SunCoke Technology and Development LLC from January 2008 to May 2008. He also served as a Senior Vice President of Sunoco from May 2008 until our initial public offering in July 2011. He was President of PSEG Fossil LLC, a subsidiary of Public Service Enterprise Group Incorporated (a diversified energy group), from August 2003 to February 2007.
Denise R. Cade. Ms. Cade was appointed Senior Vice President and General Counsel of SunCoke Energy, Inc. in March 2011 and was elected its Corporate Secretary in June 2011 and Chief Compliance Officer in July 2011. In addition, Ms. Cade was named Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary and appointed to the Board of Directors of SunCoke Energy Partners GP LLC, the general partner of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., in July 2012. Prior to joining SunCoke Energy, Inc., Ms. Cade was with PPG Industries, Inc. (“PPG”) (a coatings and specialty products company) from March 2005 to March 2011. At PPG, she served as Assistant General Counsel and Corporate Secretary from July 2009 until March 2011, as Corporate Counsel, Securities and Finance, from September 2007 until July 2009, and as Chief Mergers and Acquisition Counsel and General Counsel of the glass and fiber glass division from March 2005 until September 2007. Ms. Cade began her legal career in private practice in 1990, specializing in corporate and securities law matters and corporate transactions. She was a partner at Shaw Pittman LLP in Washington, D.C. before her move to PPG.
Fay West. Ms. West was appointed as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of SunCoke Energy, Inc. in October 2014. Prior to that time, she served as Vice President and Controller of SunCoke Energy, Inc. since February 2011. In addition, Ms. West was named Vice President and Controller and appointed to the Board of Directors of SunCoke Energy Partners GP LLC, the general partner of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., in July 2012. Prior to joining SunCoke Energy, Inc., she was Assistant Controller at United Continental Holdings, Inc. (an airline holding company) from April 2010 to January 2011. She was Vice President, Accounting and Financial Reporting for PepsiAmericas, Inc. (a manufacturer and distributor of beverage products) from December 2006 through March 2010 and Director of Financial Reporting from December 2005 to December 2006. Ms. West worked at GATX Corporation from 1998 to 2005 in various accounting roles, including Vice President and Controller of GATX Rail Company from 2001 to 2005 and Assistant Controller of GATX Corporation from 2000 to 2001.

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Allison S. Lausas. Ms. Lausas was appointed Vice President and Controller of both SunCoke Energy, Inc. and SunCoke Energy Partners GP LLC, the general partner of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., in October 2014. Ms. Lausas joined SunCoke Energy, Inc. in 2011 and most recently held the role of Assistant Controller. Prior to joining SunCoke Energy, Inc., she worked as an auditor at KPMG, LLP, an audit, advisory and tax services firm, from 2002 to 2011 where she served both public and private corporations in the consumer and industrial markets.

Item 1A.
Risk Factors
In addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be considered in evaluating our business and future prospects. These risk factors represent what we believe to be the known material risk factors with respect to us and our business. Our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition are subject to these risks and uncertainties, any of which could cause actual results to vary materially from recent results or from anticipated future results.
Risks Inherent in Our Business and Industry
Unfavorable economic conditions in the U. S. and globally, may cause a reduction in the demand for our products and services, which could adversely affect our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
Sustained volatility and disruption in worldwide capital and credit markets in the U.S. and globally could cause reduced demand for our products. Additionally, unfavorable economic conditions, including the potentially reduced availability of credit, may cause reduced demand for steel products or reduced demand for coal, either of which, in turn, could adversely affect demand for our products and services. Such conditions could have an adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
Adverse developments at our cokemaking, coal logistics and/or coal mining, operations, including equipment failures or deterioration of assets, may lead to production curtailments, shutdowns or additional expenditures, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our cokemaking, coal logistics and coal mining operations are subject to significant hazards and risks that include, but are not limited to, equipment malfunction, explosions, fires and the effects of severe weather conditions and extreme temperatures, any of which could result in production and transportation difficulties and disruptions, pollution, personal injury or wrongful death claims and other damage to our properties and the property of others.
Adverse developments at our cokemaking facilities could significantly disrupt our coke, steam and/or electricity production and our ability to supply coke, steam, and/or electricity to our customers. Adverse developments at our coal logistics operations could significantly disrupt our ability to provide coal handling, blending, storage, terminalling, transloading and/or transportation services to our customers. Adverse developments at our coal mining operations could significantly disrupt our ability to produce and distribute coal. Any sustained disruption at our cokemaking, coal logistics and/or coal mining operations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
There is a risk of mechanical failure of our equipment both in the normal course of operations and following unforeseen events. Our cokemaking, coal logistics and coal mining operations depend upon critical pieces of equipment that occasionally may be out of service for scheduled upgrades or maintenance or as a result of unanticipated failures. Our facilities are subject to equipment failures and the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events such as fires, accidents or violent weather conditions or extreme temperatures. As a result, we may experience interruptions in our processing and production capabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In particular, to the extent a disruption leads to our failure to maintain the temperature inside our coke oven batteries, we would not be able to continue operation of such coke ovens, which could adversely affect our ability to meet our customers’ requirements for coke.
Assets and equipment critical to the operations of our cokemaking, coal logistics and coal mining operations also may deteriorate or become depleted materially sooner than we currently estimate. Such deterioration of assets may result in additional maintenance spending or additional capital expenditures. If these assets do not generate the amount of future cash flows that we expect, and we are not able to procure replacement assets in an economically feasible manner, our future results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
We are required to perform impairment tests on our assets whenever events or changes in circumstances lead to a reduction of the estimated useful life or estimated future cash flows that would indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable or whenever management’s plans change with respect to those assets. If we are required to incur impairment charges in the future, our results of operations in the period taken could be materially and adversely affected.

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We are subject to extensive laws and regulations, which may increase our cost of doing business and have an adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
Our operations are subject to increasingly strict regulation by federal, state and local authorities with respect to: discharges of substances into the air and water; emissions of greenhouse gases, or GHG; management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes; cleanup of contaminated sites; protection of groundwater quality and availability; protection of plants and wildlife; reclamation and restoration of properties after completion of mining or drilling; installation of safety equipment in our facilities; control of surface subsidence from underground mining; and protection of employee health and safety. Complying with these requirements, including the terms of our permits, can be costly and time-consuming, and may delay commencement or hinder continuation of operations. In addition, these requirements are complex, change frequently and have become more stringent over time. These requirements may change in the future in a manner that could result in substantially increased capital, operating and compliance costs, and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Failure to comply with these regulations or permits may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of cleanup and site restoration costs and liens, the issuance of injunctions to limit or cease operations, the suspension or revocation of permits and other enforcement measures that could limit or materially increase the cost of our operations. We may not have been, or may not be, at all times, in complete compliance with all of these requirements, and we may incur material costs or liabilities in connection with these requirements, or in connection with remediation at sites we own, or third-party sites where it has been alleged that we have liability, in excess of the amounts we have accrued. For a description of certain environmental laws and matters applicable to us, see “Item 1. Business-Legal and Regulatory Requirements.”
We may be unable to obtain, maintain or renew permits or leases necessary for our operations, which could materially reduce our production, cash flows or profitability.
Our cokemaking, coal logistics and coal mining operations require us to obtain a number of permits that impose strict regulations on various environmental and operational matters. These, as well as our facilities and operations (including our generation of electricity), include permits issued by various federal, state and local agencies and regulatory bodies. The permitting rules, and the interpretations of these rules, are complex, change frequently, and are often subject to discretionary interpretations by our regulators, all of which may make compliance more difficult or impractical, and may possibly preclude the continuance of ongoing operations or the development of future cokemaking, coal logistics, and/or coal mining facilities. Non-governmental organizations, environmental groups and individuals have certain statutory rights to engage in the permitting process, and may comment upon, or object to, the requested permits. Such persons also have the right to bring citizen’s lawsuits to challenge the issuance of permits, or the validity of environmental impact statements related thereto. If any permits or leases are not issued or renewed in a timely fashion or at all, or if permits issued or renewed are conditioned in a manner that restricts our ability to efficiently and economically conduct our operations, our cash flows or profitability could be materially and adversely affected.
Our businesses are subject to inherent risks, some for which we maintain third-party insurance and some for which we self-insure. We may incur losses and be subject to liability claims that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
We maintain insurance policies that provide limited coverage for some, but not all, potential risks and liabilities associated with our business. We may not obtain insurance if we believe the cost of available insurance is excessive relative to the risks presented. As a result of market conditions, premiums and deductibles for certain insurance policies can increase substantially, and in some instances, certain insurance may become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. As a result, we may not be able to renew our existing insurance policies or procure other desirable insurance on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, certain environmental and pollution risks generally are not fully insurable. Even where insurance coverage applies, insurers may contest their obligations to make payments. Our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected by losses and liabilities from un-insured or under-insured events, as well as by delays in the payment of insurance proceeds, or the failure by insurers to make payments.
We also may incur costs and liabilities resulting from claims for damages to property or injury to persons arising from our operations. We must compensate employees for work-related injuries. If we do not make adequate provision for our workers’ compensation liabilities, or we are pursued for applicable sanctions, costs and liabilities, our operations and our profitability could be adversely affected.
Divestitures and other significant transactions may adversely affect our business. In particular, if we are unable to realize the anticipated benefits from our current efforts to sell or otherwise dispose of our coal mining business, or are unable to conclude such sale or disposal upon favorable terms, our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
We regularly review strategic opportunities to further our business objectives, and may eliminate assets that do not meet our return-on-investment criteria. We are currently engaged in efforts to sell or otherwise dispose of our coal mining

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business as part of a strategic review and realignment of our businesses and priorities. If we are unable to complete such sale or other disposal upon favorable terms, or in a timely manner, or if the market conditions assumed in our project economics deteriorate, our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
The anticipated benefits of divestitures and other strategic transactions may not be realized, or may be realized more slowly than we expected. Such transactions also could result in a number of financial consequences having a material effect on our results of operations and our financial position, including reduced cash balances; higher fixed expenses; the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities (including indemnification obligations); restructuring charges; loss of customers, suppliers, distributors, licensors or employees; legal, accounting and advisory fees; and impairment charges.
In connection with our previously announced intention to sell or otherwise dispose of our coal mining business, our coal mining operations have been reflected as discontinued operations and the related net assets are presented as held for sale in our consolidated financial statements. We have recorded impairment charges for the write-down of coal mining assets and related goodwill, and we have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant exit and disposal costs relating to employee separation and retention and contract termination, among other things. In addition, we expect to retain certain legacy coal mining liabilities for black lung, workers' compensation and other post retirement employee benefit obligations.
In the event that a sale of our coal mining business does not occur, we will evaluate the various restructuring options to further rationalize coal production over the near term and potentially cease coal production. At this time, we are unable in good faith to make a determination of an estimate with respect to the charges related to such potential actions. However, any such charges could result in significant additional future cash expenditures.
Our failure to generate significant cost savings from the sale or other disposal of our coal mining business could affect our profitability adversely and weaken our competitive position. Additionally, following a complete exit from the coal mining business, we will be entirely dependent upon third parties for a supply of metallurgical coal adequate for the manufacture of coke at our cokemaking facilities. Our inability to acquire sufficient metallurgical coal at favorable prices, or the failure of our future suppliers to deliver metallurgical coal in accordance with our required specifications, could have a material and adverse impact on our business or results of operations.
We may experience significant risks associated with future acquisitions and/or investments.
The success of our future acquisitions and/or investments will depend substantially on the accuracy of our analysis concerning such businesses and our ability to complete such acquisitions or investments on favorable terms, as well as to finance such acquisitions or investments and to integrate the acquired operations successfully with existing operations. Antitrust and other laws may prevent us from completing acquisitions. If we are unable to integrate new operations successfully, our financial results and business reputation could suffer.
Risks associated with acquisitions include the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, the potential loss of key employees and customers of the acquired business, the possible assumption of unknown liabilities, potential disputes with the sellers, and the inherent risks in entering markets or lines of business in which we have limited or no prior experience. Additionally, in the event we form joint ventures or other similar arrangements, we must pay close attention to the organizational formalities and time-consuming procedures for sharing information and making decisions. We may share ownership and management with other parties who may not have the same goals, strategies, priorities, or resources as we do. The benefits from a successful investment in an existing entity or joint venture will be shared among the co-owners, so we will not receive the exclusive benefits from a successful investment. Additionally, if a co-owner changes, our relationship may be materially and adversely affected.
Our operations could be disrupted if our information systems fail, causing increased expenses and loss of sales. Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
Our business is dependent on financial, accounting and other data processing systems and other communications and information systems, including our enterprise resource planning tools. We process a large number of transactions on a daily basis and rely upon the proper functioning of computer systems. If a key system was to fail or experience unscheduled downtime for any reason, even if only for a short period, our operations and financial results could be affected adversely. Our systems could be damaged or interrupted by a security breach, terrorist attack, fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure or similar event.  Our disaster recovery plans may not entirely prevent delays or other complications that could arise from an information systems failure. Our business interruption insurance may not compensate us adequately for losses that may occur.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data in our data centers and on our networks.  Such data includes:  intellectual property; our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners; and personally identifiable information of our employees.  The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy.  Despite our security measures, our

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information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions.  Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen.  Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and regulatory penalties, disrupt our operations, and damage our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, which could seriously and adversely affect our business.
Our operating results have been and may continue to be affected by fluctuations in our costs of production, and, if we cannot pass increases in our costs of production to our customers, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be negatively affected.
Our operations require a reliable supply of equipment and replacement parts. Over the course of the last two to three years, many of the components of our cost of produced coke and coal revenues, including cost of supplies, equipment and labor, have experienced significant price inflation, and such price inflation may continue in the future. Our profit margins may be reduced and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected if the costs of production increase significantly and we cannot pass such increases in our costs of production to our customers.
Labor disputes with the unionized portion of our workforce could affect us adversely. Union represented labor creates an increased risk of work stoppages and higher labor costs.
We rely, at one or more of our facilities, on unionized labor, and there is always the possibility that we may be unable to reach agreement on terms and conditions of employment or renewal of a collective bargaining agreement. When collective bargaining agreements expire or terminate, we may not be able to negotiate new agreements on the same or more favorable terms as the current agreements, or at all, and without production interruptions, including labor stoppages. If we are unable to negotiate the renewal of a collective bargaining agreement before its expiration date, our operations and our profitability could be adversely affected. A prolonged labor dispute, which may include a work stoppage, could adversely affect our ability to satisfy our customers’ orders and, as a result, adversely affect our operations, or the stability of production and reduce our future revenues, or profitability. It is also possible that, in the future, additional employee groups may choose to be represented by a labor union.
Our ability to operate our company effectively could be impaired if we fail to attract and retain key personnel.
We have implemented recruitment, training and retention efforts to optimally staff our operations. Our ability to operate our business and implement our strategies depends in part on the efforts of our executive officers and other key employees. In addition, our future success will depend on, among other factors, our ability to attract and retain other qualified personnel. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or other key employees or the inability to attract or retain other qualified personnel in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business or business prospects. With respect to our represented employees, we may be adversely impacted by the loss of employees who retire or obtain other employment during a layoff or a work stoppage.
We have obligations for long-term employee plan benefits that may involve expenses that are greater than we have assumed.
We are required to provide various long-term employee benefits to retired employees and current employees who will retire in the future. We have estimated these obligations based on actuarial assumptions described in Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements. However, if our assumptions are inaccurate, we could be required to expend materially greater amounts than anticipated, and this could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We currently are, and likely will be, subject to litigation, the disposition of which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
The nature of our operations exposes us to possible litigation claims in the future, including disputes relating to our operations and commercial and contractual arrangements. Although we make every effort to avoid litigation, these matters are not totally within our control. We will contest these matters vigorously and have made insurance claims where appropriate, but because of the uncertain nature of litigation and coverage decisions, we cannot predict the outcome of these matters. Litigation is very costly, and the costs associated with prosecuting and defending litigation matters could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and profitability. In addition, our profitability or cash flow in a particular period could be affected by an adverse ruling in any litigation currently pending in the courts or by litigation that may be filed against us in the future. We are also subject to significant environmental and other government regulation, which sometimes results in various administrative proceedings. For information regarding our current significant legal proceedings, see “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”

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Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the senior notes and the credit facilities.
Subject to the limits contained in our credit agreement, the indenture that governs our notes and our other debt instruments, we may be able to incur substantial additional debt from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our level of debt could intensify. Specifically, a higher level of debt could have important consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the notes and our other debt;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the credit facilities, are at variable rates of interest;
limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry in which we compete;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage to other, less leveraged competitors; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
In addition, the indenture that governs the notes and the credit agreement governing our credit facilities contain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all our debt.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under the credit facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. We have entered into and may in the future enter into additional interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may decide not to maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.
We face substantial debt maturities which may adversely affect our consolidated financial positions.
Over the next six years, including the debt refinancing activities of the January 2015 dropdown, we have approximately $705 million of total consolidated debt maturing at SunCoke and the Partnership (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements). We may not be able to refinance this debt, or may be forced to do so on terms substantially less favorable than our currently outstanding debt. We may be forced to delay or not make capital expenditures, which may adversely affect our competitive position and financial results.
Rating agencies may downgrade our credit ratings, which would make it more difficult for us to raise capital and would increase our financing costs.
Any downgrades in our credit ratings may make raising capital more difficult, may increase the cost and affect the terms of future borrowings, may affect the terms under which we purchase goods and services and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities.
Risks Related to Our Cokemaking Business
Our cokemaking business is subject to operating risks, some of which are beyond our control, that could result in a material increase in our operating expenses.
Factors beyond our control could disrupt our cokemaking operations, adversely affect our ability to service the needs of our customers, and increase our operating costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Such factors could include:
earthquakes, subsidence and unstable ground or other conditions that may cause damage to infrastructure or personnel;
fire, explosion, or other major incident causing injury to personnel and/or equipment, resulting in all or part of the cokemaking operations at one of our facilities to cease, or be severely curtailed for a period of time;

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processing and plant equipment failures, operating hazards and unexpected maintenance problems affecting our cokemaking operations or our customers; and
adverse weather and natural disasters, such as severe winds, heavy rains, snow, flooding, extremes of temperature, and other natural events affecting cokemaking operations, transportation, or our customers.
If any of these conditions or events occur, our cokemaking operations may be disrupted, operating costs could increase significantly, and we could incur substantial losses in this business segment. Disruptions in our cokemaking operations could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, or results of operations.
We are exposed to the credit risk, and certain other risks, of our major customers, and any material nonpayment or nonperformance by our major customers, or the failure of our customers to continue to purchase coke from us at similar prices under similar arrangements, may have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
We are subject to the credit risk of our major customers. Our credit procedures and policies may not be adequate to fully eliminate customer credit risk. If we fail to adequately assess the creditworthiness of existing or future customers or unanticipated deterioration of their creditworthiness, any resulting increase in nonpayment or nonperformance by them could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
We are subject to the risk of loss resulting from nonpayment or nonperformance by our customers, whose operations are concentrated in a single industry, the steel industry. We sell coke to these customers pursuant to long-term take-or-pay agreements that require that our customers either purchase all of our coke production or a specified tonnage maximum greater than our stated capacity, as applicable, or pay the contract price for any such coke they elect not to accept. Our customers experience significant fluctuations in demand for steel products because of economic conditions, consumer demand, raw material and energy costs and decisions by the U.S. federal and state governments to fund or not fund infrastructure projects, such as highways, bridges, schools, energy plants, railroads and transportation facilities. During periods of weak demand for steel, our customers may experience significant reductions in their operations, or substantial declines in the prices of the steel they sell. These and other factors may lead some customers to seek renegotiation or cancellation of their existing long-term coke purchase commitments to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
If a substantial portion of our agreements to supply coke, electricity, and/or steam are modified or terminated, our results of operations may be adversely affected if we are not able to replace such agreements, or if we are not able to enter into new agreements at the same level of profitability.
We make substantially all of our coke, electricity and steam sales under long-term agreements. If a substantial portion of these agreements are modified or terminated or if force majeure is exercised, our results of operations may be adversely affected if we are not able to replace such agreements, or if we are not able to enter into new agreements at the same level of profitability. The profitability of our long-term coke, energy and steam sales agreements depends on a variety of factors that vary from agreement to agreement and fluctuate during the agreement term. We may not be able to obtain long-term agreements at favorable prices, compared either to market conditions or to our cost structure. Price changes provided in long-term supply agreements may not reflect actual increases in production costs. As a result, such cost increases may reduce profit margins on our long-term coke and energy sales agreements. In addition, contractual provisions for adjustment or renegotiation of prices and other provisions may increase our exposure to short-term price volatility.
From time to time, we discuss the extension of existing agreements and enter into new long-term agreements for the supply of coke and energy to our customers, but these negotiations may not be successful and these customers may not continue to purchase coke or electricity from us under long-term agreements. If any one or more of these customers were to significantly reduce their purchases of coke or electricity from us, or if we were unable to sell coke or electricity to them on terms as favorable to us as the terms under our current agreements, our cash flows, financial position or results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Further, because of certain technological design constraints, we do not have the ability to shut down our cokemaking operations if we do not have adequate customer demand. If a customer refuses to take or pay for our coke, we must continuously operate our coke ovens even though we may not be able to sell our coke immediately and may incur significant additional costs for natural gas to maintain the temperature inside our coke oven batteries, which may have a material and adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position or results of operations.
The financial performance of our cokemaking business is substantially dependent upon three customers in the steel industry, and any failure by them to perform under their contracts with us could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Substantially all of our domestic coke sales are currently made under long-term contracts with ArcelorMittal, U.S. Steel and AK Steel. We expect these three customers to continue to account for a significant portion of our revenues for the

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foreseeable future. If any one or more of these customers were to significantly reduce its purchases of coke from us, or default on their agreements with us, or fail to renew or terminate its agreements with us, or if we were unable to sell coke to any one or more of these customers on terms as favorable to us as the terms under our current agreements, our cash flows, financial position and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
The coke sales agreement and the energy sales agreement with AK Steel at our Haverhill facility are subject to early termination under certain circumstances and any such termination could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and therefore our ability to distribute cash to unitholders.
The coke sales agreement and the energy sales agreement with AK Steel at Haverhill 2, or the Haverhill AK Steel Contracts, are subject to early termination by AK Steel under certain circumstances and any such termination could have a material adverse effect on our business. The Haverhill coke sales agreement with AK Steel expires on January 1, 2022, with two automatic, successive five-year renewal periods. The Haverhill energy sales agreement with AK Steel runs concurrently with the term of the coke sales agreement, including any renewals, and automatically terminates upon the termination of the related coke sales agreement. The coke sales agreement may be terminated by AK Steel at any time on or after January 1, 2014 upon two years prior written notice if AK Steel (i) permanently shuts down iron production operations at its steel plant works in Ashland, Kentucky, or the Ashland Plant; and (ii) has not acquired or begun construction of a new blast furnace in the U.S. to replace, in whole or in part, the Ashland Plant’s iron production capacity. If such termination occurs at any time prior to January 1, 2018, AK Steel will be required to pay a significant termination fee.
If AK Steel were to terminate the Haverhill AK Steel Contracts, we may be unable to enter into similar long-term contracts with replacement customers for all or any portion of the coke previously purchased by AK Steel. Similarly, we may be forced to sell some or all of the previously contracted coke in the spot market, which could be at prices lower than we have currently contracted for and could subject us to significant price volatility. If AK Steel elects to terminate the Haverhill AK Steel Contracts, our cash flows, financial position and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We are exposed to specific risks inherent in doing business in countries other than the U.S., which could adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
Our foreign operations expose us to several risks that are beyond our control, including, among other things, political and economic instability within the host country; foreign government regulations that favor or require the awarding of contracts to local competitors; difficulty recruiting and retaining management of our overseas operations; difficulties in collecting accounts receivable and longer collection periods; changing taxation policies; fluctuations in currency exchange rates; revaluations, devaluations and restrictions on repatriation of currency; and import/export quotas and restrictions or other trade barriers.
In recent years, the Indian government's regulation of iron ore production resulted in iron ore scarcity in the state of Odisha, where our cokemaking facilities are located, severely affected Indian steel makers such as our joint venture partner, VISA Steel, that did not have captive mines. Although this regulation has now been effectively repealed, other similar regulation in the future could have, a significant and adverse effect on the profitability of our Indian joint venture.
The Indian steelmaking industry is dependent on imported coking coal, since India has very low reserves of prime coking coal. This has led to a dependence upon expensive imports from countries like Australia. VISA SunCoke Limited, our cokemaking joint venture with VISA Steel in India is dependent on coking coal to support its operations. However, logistical issues, such as port congestion in Australia and lack of other good quality options for sourcing coking coal, is a prime cause of concern. If we are unable to secure adequate supplies of coking coal at reasonable prices, the results of operations of our Indian joint venture could be adversely affected.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could significantly and adversely affect results of operations or financial condition.
Our operations outside the U.S. have transactions and balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the Indian rupee and the Brazilian real, among others. Because our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and are reported in U.S. dollars, we translate revenues, expenses and balance sheet accounts of our foreign operations into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect during or at the end of each reporting period. Currency exchange rates are influenced by local inflation, growth, interest rates, governmental actions and other events and circumstances beyond our control.
Increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar against these other currencies will affect our net operating revenues, operating income and the value of balance sheet items denominated in such foreign currencies.
Our India Coke business segment purchases metallurgical coal to be used in the production of coke. Since these purchases of coal are denominated in U.S. dollars, while the functional currency of this business segment is the Indian rupee, such transactions are subject to foreign currency risk.  In addition, unexpected and dramatic fluctuations in currency exchange

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rates, such as the recent deterioration in value of the Indian rupee, could materially and adversely affect the value of our earnings from our India Coke business segment. Although our India Coke business segment uses derivative financial instruments to hedge currency fluctuations for anticipated purchases of coal used in the production of coke, we cannot assure you that fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Indian rupee, or other currencies, would not materially affect our financial results.
Income from operation of the Vitória, Brazil cokemaking facility may be affected by global and regional economic and political factors and the policies and actions of the Brazilian government.
The Vitória cokemaking facility is owned by a project company controlled by a Brazilian affiliate of ArcelorMittal. We earn income from the Vitória, Brazil operations through licensing and operating fees earned at the Brazilian cokemaking facility payable to us under long-term agreements with the project company and an annual preferred dividend from the project company guaranteed by the Brazilian affiliate of ArcelorMittal. These revenues depend on continuing operations and, in some cases, certain minimum production levels being achieved at the Vitória cokemaking facility. In the past, the Brazilian economy has been characterized by frequent and occasionally extensive intervention by the Brazilian government and unstable economic cycles. The Brazilian government has changed in the past, and may change monetary, taxation, credit, tariff and other policies to influence Brazil’s economy in the future. If the operations at Vitória cokemaking facility are interrupted or if certain minimum production levels are not achieved, we will not be able to earn the same licensing and operating fees as we are currently earning, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Excess capacity in the global steel industry, including in China, may weaken demand for steel produced by our U.S. steel industry customers, which, in turn, may reduce demand for our coke.
In some countries, such as China, steelmaking capacity exceeds demand for steel products. Rather than reducing employment by matching production capacity to consumption, steel manufacturers in these countries (often with local government assistance or subsidies in various forms) may export steel at prices that are significantly below their home market prices and that may not reflect their costs of production or capital. The availability of this steel at such prices may negatively affect our steelmaking customers, who may not be able to increase and may have to decrease, the prices that they charge for steel as the supply of steel increases. Our customers may also reduce their steel output in response to this increased supply, which would correspondingly reduce their demand for coke and make it more likely that they may seek to renegotiate their contracts with us or fail to pay for the coke they are required to take under our contracts. As a result, the profitability and financial position of our steelmaking customers may be adversely affected, which in turn, could adversely affect the certainty of our long-term relationships with those customers, as well as our ability to sell excess capacity in the spot market, and our own results of operations.
Increased exports of coke from producing countries may weaken our customers’ demand for coke capacity.
In recent years, significantly increased availability and supply of Chinese coke has exerted downward pressure on the pricing of coke sold by VISA SunCoke, our Indian joint venture. Future increases in exports of coke from China and/or other producing countries may reduce our customers’ demand for coke capacity, which could depress coke prices and limit our ability to enter into new, or renew existing, commercial arrangements with our customers, as well as our ability to sell excess capacity in the spot market, and could materially and adversely affect our future revenues and profitability.
We face increasing competition both from alternative steelmaking and cokemaking technologies that have the potential to reduce or completely eliminate the use of coke, which may reduce the demand for the coke we produce and which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Historically, coke has been used as a main input in the production of steel in blast furnaces. However, some blast furnace operators have reduced the amount of coke per ton of hot metal through alternative injectants, such as natural gas and pulverized coal, and the use of these coke substitutes could increase in the future, particularly in light of current low natural gas prices. Many steelmakers also are exploring alternatives to blast furnace technology that require less or no use of coke. For example, electric arc furnace technology is a commercially proven process widely used in the U.S. As these alternative processes for production of steel become more widespread, the demand for coke, including the coke we produce, may be significantly reduced, and this reduction could have a material and adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We also face competition from alternative cokemaking technologies, including both by-product and heat recovery technologies. As these technologies improve and as new technologies are developed, competition in the cokemaking industry may intensify.

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Certain provisions in our long-term coke agreements may result in economic penalties to us, or may result in termination of our coke sales agreements for failure to meet minimum volume requirements or other required specifications, and certain provisions in these agreements and our energy sales agreements may permit our customers to suspend performance.
Our agreements for the supply of coke, energy and/or steam, contain provisions requiring us to supply minimum volumes of our products to our customers. To the extent we do not meet these minimum volumes, we are generally required under the terms of our coke sales agreements to procure replacement supply to our customers at the applicable contract price or potentially be subject to cover damages for any shortfall. If future shortfalls occur, we will work with our customer to identify possible other supply sources while we implement operating improvements at the facility, but we may not be successful in identifying alternative supplies and may be subject to paying the contract price for any shortfall or to cover damages, either of which could adversely affect our future revenues and profitability. Our coke sales agreements also contain provisions requiring us to deliver coke that meets certain quality thresholds. Failure to meet these specifications could result in economic penalties, including price adjustments, the rejection of deliveries or termination of our agreements.
Our coke and energy sales agreements contain force majeure provisions allowing temporary suspension of performance by our customers for the duration of specified events beyond the control of our customers. Declaration of force majeure, coupled with a lengthy suspension of performance under one or more coke or energy sales agreements, may seriously and adversely affect our cash flows, financial position and results of operations.
To the extent we do not meet coal-to-coke yield standards in our coke sales agreements, we are responsible for the cost of the excess coal used in the cokemaking process, which could adversely impact our results of operations and profitability.
Our ability to pass through our coal costs to our customers under our coke sales agreements is generally subject to our ability to meet some form of coal-to-coke yield standard. To the extent that we do not meet the yield standard in the contract, we are responsible for the cost of the excess coal used in the cokemaking process. We may not be able to meet the yield standards at all times, and as a result we may suffer lower margins on our coke sales and our results of operations and profitability could be adversely affected.
Failure to maintain effective quality control systems at our cokemaking facilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The quality of our coke is critical to the success of our business. For instance, our coke sales agreements contain provisions requiring us to deliver coke that meets certain quality thresholds. If our coke fails to meet such specifications, we could be subject to significant contractual damages or contract terminations, and our sales could be negatively affected. The quality of our coke depends significantly on the effectiveness of our quality control systems, which, in turn, depends on a number of factors, including the design of our quality control systems, our quality-training program and our ability to ensure that our employees adhere to our quality control policies and guidelines. Any significant failure or deterioration of our quality control systems could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Disruptions to our supply of coal and coal blending services may reduce the amount of coke we produce and deliver, and if we are not able to cover the shortfall in coal supply or obtain replacement blending services from other providers, our results of operations and profitability could be adversely affected.
Most of the metallurgical coal used to produce coke at our cokemaking facilities, other than our Jewell facility, is purchased from third parties under one- to two-year contracts. We cannot assure that there will continue to be an ample supply of metallurgical coal available or that we will be able to supply these facilities without any significant disruption in coke production, as economic, environmental, and other conditions outside of our control may reduce our ability to source sufficient amounts of coal for our forecasted operational needs. The failure of our coal suppliers to meet their supply commitments could materially and adversely impact our results of operations if we are not able to make up the shortfalls resulting from such supply failures through purchases of coal from other sources.
Other than at our Jewell cokemaking facility, we rely on third parties to blend coals that we have purchased into coal blends that we use to produce coke. We have entered into long-term agreements with coal blending service providers that are coterminous with our coke sales agreements. However, there are limited alternative providers of coal blending services and any disruptions from our current service providers could materially and adversely impact our results of operations. In addition, if our rail transportation agreements are terminated, we may have to pay higher rates to access rail lines or make alternative transportation arrangements.

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Limitations on the availability and reliability of transportation, and increases in transportation costs, particularly rail systems, could materially and adversely affect our ability to obtain a supply of coal and deliver coke to our customers.
Our ability to obtain coal depends primarily on third-party rail systems and to a lesser extent river barges. If we are unable to obtain rail or other transportation services, or are unable to do so on a cost-effective basis, our results of operations could be adversely affected. Alternative transportation and delivery systems are generally inadequate and not suitable to handle the quantity of our shipments or to ensure timely delivery. The loss of access to rail capacity could create temporary disruption until the access is restored, significantly impairing our ability to receive coal and resulting in materially decreased revenues. Our ability to open new cokemaking facilities may also be affected by the availability and cost of rail or other transportation systems available for servicing these facilities.
Our coke production obligations at our Jewell cokemaking facility and one half of our Haverhill cokemaking facility require us to deliver coke to certain customers via railcar. We have entered into long-term rail transportation agreements to meet these obligations. Disruption of these transportation services because of weather-related problems, mechanical difficulties, train derailments, infrastructure damage, strikes, lock-outs, lack of fuel or maintenance items, fuel costs, transportation delays, accidents, terrorism, domestic catastrophe or other events could temporarily, or over the long-term, impair our ability to produce coke, and therefore, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Coal Logistics Business
The growth and success of our coal logistics business depends upon our ability to find and contract for adequate throughput volumes, and an extended decline in demand for coal could affect the customers for our coal logistics business adversely. As a consequence, the operating results and cash flows of our coal logistics business could be materially and adversely affected.
The financial results of our Coal Logistics business segment are significantly affected by the demand for both thermal coal and metallurgical coal. An extended decline in our customers’ demand for either thermal or metallurgical coals could result in a reduced need for the coal blending, terminalling and transloading services we offer, thus reducing throughput and utilization of our coal logistics assets. Demand for such coals may fluctuate due to factors beyond our control:
The demand for thermal coal can be impacted by changes in the energy consumption pattern of industrial consumers, electricity generators and residential users, as well as weather conditions and extreme temperatures. The amount of thermal coal consumed for electric power generation is affected primarily by the overall demand for electricity, the availability, quality and price of competing fuels for power generation, and governmental regulation. Natural gas-fueled generation has the potential to displace coal-fueled generation, particularly from older, less efficient coal-powered generators. State and federal mandates for increased use of electricity from renewable energy sources, or the retrofitting of existing coal-fired generators with pollution control systems, also could adversely impact the demand for thermal coal. Finally, unusually warm winter weather may reduce the commercial and residential needs for heat and electricity which, in turn, may reduce the demand for thermal coal; and
The demand for metallurgical coal for use in the steel industry may be impacted adversely by economic downturns resulting in decreased demand for steel and an overall decline in steel production. A decline in blast furnace production of steel may reduce the demand for furnace coke, an intermediate product made from metallurgical coal. Decreased demand for metallurgical coal also may result from increased steel industry utilization of processes that do not use, or reduce the need for, furnace coke, such as electric arc furnaces, or blast furnace injection of pulverized coal or natural gas.
Additionally, fluctuations in the market price of coal can greatly affect production rates and investments by third parties in the development of new and existing coal reserves. Mining activity may decrease as spot coal prices decrease. We have no control over the level of mining activity by coal producers, which may be affected by prevailing and projected coal prices, demand for hydrocarbons, the level of coal reserves, geological considerations, governmental regulation and the availability and cost of capital. A material decrease in coal mining production in the areas of operation for our coal logistics business, whether as a result of depressed commodity prices or otherwise, could result in a decline in the volume of coal processed through our coal logistics facilities, which would reduce our revenues and operating income.
Decreased demand for thermal or metallurgical coals, and extended or substantial price declines for coal could adversely affect our operating results for future periods and our ability to generate cash flows necessary to improve productivity and expand operations. The cash flows associated with our coal logistics business may decline unless we are able to secure new volumes of coal by attracting additional customers to these operations. Future growth and profitability of our coal logistics business segment will depend, in part, upon whether we can contract for additional coal volumes at a rate greater than that of any decline in volumes from existing customers. Accordingly, decreased demand for coal, or a decrease in the market price of coal, could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations or financial condition of our coal logistics business.

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Our failure to obtain or renew surety bonds on acceptable terms could materially and adversely affect our ability to secure our reclamation obligations and, therefore, our ability to operate our coal logistics business.
Federal and state laws require us to obtain surety bonds to secure performance or payment of certain long-term obligations, such as reclamation costs, federal and state workers’ compensation costs and other obligations. Surety bond issuers and holders may not continue to renew the bonds or may demand higher fees, additional collateral, including letters of credit, or other terms less favorable to us upon renewals. We are also subject to increases in the amount of surety bonds required by Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act and other federal and state laws as these laws, or interpretations of these laws, change. Because we are required by state and federal law to have these bonds in place before activities at our coal logistics operations can commence or continue, our failure to maintain (or inability to acquire) these bonds would have a material and adverse impact on us. That failure could result from a variety of factors, including: lack of availability, higher expense or unfavorable market terms of new bonds; restrictions on availability of collateral for current and future third-party surety bond issuers under the terms of future indebtedness; our inability to meet certain financial tests with respect to a portion of the reclamation bonds; and the exercise by third-party surety bond issuers of their right to refuse to renew, or to issue, new bonds.
Our coal logistics business is subject to operating risks, some of which are beyond our control, that could result in a material increase in our operating expenses.
Factors beyond our control could disrupt our coal logistics operations, adversely affect our ability to service the needs of our customers, and increase our operating costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Such factors could include:
geological, hydrologic, or other conditions that may cause damage to infrastructure or personnel;
a major incident that causes all or part of the coal logistics operations at a site to cease for a period of time;
processing and plant equipment failures and unexpected maintenance problems;
adverse weather and natural disasters, such as heavy rains or snow, flooding, extreme temperatures and other natural events affecting coal logistics operations, transportation, or customers;
If any of these conditions or events occur, our coal logistics operations may be disrupted, operating costs could increase significantly, and we could incur substantial losses in this business segment. Disruptions in our coal logistics operations could seriously and adversely affect our financial condition, or results of operations.
Deterioration in the global economic conditions in any of the industries in which our customers operate, or sustained uncertainty in financial markets, may have adverse impacts on our business and financial condition that we currently cannot predict.
Economic conditions in a number of industries in which our customers operate, such as electric power generation and steel making, substantially deteriorated in recent years and reduced the demand for coal.
demand for electricity in the U.S. is impacted by industrial production, which if weakened would negatively impact the revenues, margins and profitability of our coal logistics business;
demand for metallurgical coal depends on steel demand in the U.S. and globally, which if weakened would negatively impact the revenues, margins and profitability of our coal logistics business;
the tightening of credit or lack of credit availability to our customers could adversely affect our ability to collect our trade receivables; and
our ability to access the capital markets may be restricted at a time when we would like, or need, to raise capital for our business including for potential acquisitions, or other growth opportunities.
Risks Related to Our Coal Mining Business
Coal prices are volatile, and a substantial or extended decline in prices could adversely affect our profitability and the value of our coal reserves.
Our profitability and the value of our coal reserves depend upon the prices we receive for the coal we sell, and such prices depend upon factors beyond our control, including:
the domestic and foreign demand and supply for metallurgical coal;
the quantity and quality of coal available from domestic and foreign competitors;
the demand for steel, which may lead to price fluctuations in the re-pricing of our metallurgical coal contracts;
competition within our industry;
adverse weather, extreme temperatures, climatic or other natural conditions, including natural disasters;
domestic and foreign economic conditions, including economic slowdowns;
legislative, regulatory and judicial developments, environmental regulatory changes or changes in energy policy and energy conservation measures that would adversely affect the coal industry, such as legislation limiting carbon emissions; and
the proximity, capacity and cost of transportation facilities.

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A substantial or extended decline in the prices we receive for our future coal sales could adversely affect our profitability and the value of our coal reserves.
Extensive governmental regulations pertaining to employee health and safety and mandated benefits for retired coal miners impose significant costs on our mining operations, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
The coal mining industry is subject to increasingly strict regulation by federal, state and local authorities with respect to matters such as employee health and safety and mandated benefits for retired coal miners. Compliance with these requirements imposes significant costs on us and can result in reduced productivity. Moreover, the possibility exists that new health and safety legislation and/or regulations and orders may be adopted that may materially and adversely affect our mining operations. We must compensate employees for work-related injuries. If we do not make adequate provisions for our workers’ compensation liabilities, it could harm our future operating results. In addition, the erosion through tort liability of the protections we are currently provided by workers’ compensation laws could increase our liability for work-related injuries and materially and adversely affect our operating results.
Under federal law, each coal mine operator must secure payment of federal black lung benefits to claimants who are current and former employees and contribute to a trust fund for the payment of benefits and medical expenses to claimants who last worked in the coal industry before January 1, 1970. The trust fund is funded by an excise tax on coal production. If this tax increases, or if we could no longer pass it on to the purchasers of our coal under our coal sales agreements, our operating costs could be increased and our results could be materially and adversely harmed. At December 31, 2014, our liabilities for coal workers’ black lung benefits totaled $43.9 million, which included the estimated impact of PPACA. If new laws or regulations increase the number and award size of claims, it could materially and adversely harm our business. See “Item 1. Business-Legal and Regulatory Requirements-Other Regulatory Requirements.”
Federal or state regulatory agencies have the authority to order our mines to be temporarily or permanently closed under certain circumstances, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to meet our customers’ demands.
Federal or state regulatory agencies have the authority under certain circumstances following significant health and safety incidents, such as fatalities, to order a mine to be temporarily or permanently closed. If this occurred, we may be required to incur capital expenditures to re-open the mine and may incur fines. In the event that these agencies order the closing of our mines, our coal sales contracts generally permit us to issue force majeure notices which suspend our obligations to deliver coal under these contracts. However, our customers may challenge our issuances of force majeure notices. If these challenges are successful, we may have to purchase coal from third-party sources, if it is available, to fulfill these obligations, incur capital expenditures to re-open the mines and/or negotiate settlements with the customers, which may include price reductions, the reduction of commitments or the extension of time for delivery or termination of customers’ contracts. Our coal operations also provide substantially all of the coal used at our Jewell cokemaking facility. The inability to deliver the required coal to this facility could significantly impact operations at the facility. Any of these actions could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Extensive environmental regulations impose significant costs on our mining operations, and future regulations could materially increase those costs, impose new or increased liabilities, limit our ability to produce and sell coal, or require us to change our operations significantly, any one or more of which could materially and adversely affect our financial position and/or results of operations.
Our coal mining operations are subject to increasingly strict regulation by federal, state and local authorities with respect to environmental matters such as:
limitations on land use;
mine permitting and licensing requirements;
reclamation and restoration of mining properties after mining is completed;
management of materials generated by mining operations;
the storage, treatment and disposal of wastes;
remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, including with respect to past or legacy mining operations;
air quality standards;
water pollution;
protection of human health, plant-life and wildlife, including endangered or threatened species;
protection of wetlands;
the discharge of materials into the environment;
the effects of mining on surface water and groundwater quality and availability; and
the management of electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls.
The costs, liabilities and requirements associated with the laws and regulations related to these and other environmental matters can be costly and time-consuming, and could delay commencement or continuation of expansion or

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production operations. We may not have been, or may not be, at all times in compliance with the applicable laws and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of cleanup and site restoration costs and liens, the issuance of injunctions to limit or cease operations, the suspension or revocation of permits and other enforcement measures that could have the effect of limiting production from our operations. We may incur material costs and liabilities resulting from claims for damages to property or injury to persons arising from our operations. If we are pursued for sanctions, costs and liabilities in respect of these matters, our mining operations and, as a result, our profitability could be materially and adversely affected.
New legislation or administrative regulations or new judicial interpretations or administrative enforcement of existing laws and regulations, including proposals related to the protection of the environment that would further regulate and tax the coal industry, also may require us to change operations significantly, or incur increased costs. Such changes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 1. Business-Legal and Regulatory Requirements” for further information about the various governmental regulations affecting us.
Our coal mining operations are subject to operating risks, some of which are beyond our control, that could result in a material increase in our operating expenses and a decrease in our production levels.
Factors beyond our control could disrupt our coal mining operations, adversely affect production and shipments and increase our operating costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Such factors could include:
poor mining conditions resulting from geological, hydrologic or other conditions that may cause damage to nearby infrastructure or mine personnel;
variations in the thickness and quality of coal seams, and variations in the amounts of rock and other natural materials overlying the coal being mined;
a major incident at a mine site that causes all or part of the operations of the mine to cease for some period of time;
mining, processing and plant equipment failures and unexpected maintenance problems;
adverse weather, extreme temperatures, and natural disasters, such as heavy rains or snow, flooding and other natural events affecting operations, transportation or customers;
unexpected or accidental surface subsidence from underground mining;
accidental mine water discharges, fires, explosions or similar mining accidents; and
competition and/or conflicts with other natural resource extraction activities and production within our operating areas, such as coalbed methane extraction.
If any of these conditions or events occur, our coal mining operations may be disrupted, we could experience a delay or halt of production or shipments, operating costs could increase significantly, and we could incur substantial losses. In particular, our Jewell cokemaking facility currently obtains essentially all of its metallurgical coal requirements from our existing coal mining operations. Disruptions in our coal mining operations, resulting in decreased production of metallurgical coal, could seriously and adversely affect production at our Jewell cokemaking facility.
If transportation for our coal becomes unavailable or uneconomical for our customers, it may impair our ability to sell coal, and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
Transportation costs represent a significant portion of the total cost of coal and the cost of transportation is a critical factor in a customer’s purchasing decision. Increases in transportation costs and the lack of sufficient rail and port capacity could lead to reduced coal sales. For example, all of our coal mining operations are substantially dependent on, and only have access to, a single rail provider. A substantial amount of the metallurgical coal produced from our coal mining operations is used in our adjacent Jewell cokemaking facility. However, future disruption of transportation services (due to weather-related problems, infrastructure damage, strikes, lock-outs, lack of fuel or maintenance items, underperformance of port and rail infrastructure, congestion and balancing systems used to manage vessel queuing and demurrage, transportation delays or other reasons) may temporarily impair our ability to supply coal to other customers and adversely affect our results of operations.
We face numerous uncertainties in estimating economically recoverable coal reserves, and inaccuracies in estimates may result in lower than expected revenues, higher than expected costs and decreased profitability.
Our future performance depends on, among other things, the accuracy of our estimates of our proven and probable coal reserves. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities and values of economically recoverable coal reserves, including many factors beyond our control. As a result, estimates of economically recoverable coal reserves are by their nature uncertain. We base our estimates of reserves on engineering, economic and geological data assembled, analyzed and reviewed by internal and third-party engineers and consultants. We update our estimates of the quantity and quality of proven and probable coal reserves as needed to reflect production of coal from the reserves, updated geological models and mining recovery data, tonnage contained in newly acquired lease areas and estimated costs of production and sales prices.

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There are numerous factors and assumptions that affect economically recoverable reserve estimates, including:
quality of the coal;
historical production from the area compared with production from other producing areas;
geological and mining conditions, which may not be fully identified by available exploration data and/or may differ from our experiences in areas where we currently mine;
the percentage of coal ultimately recoverable;
the assumed effects of regulation, including the issuance of required permits, taxes, including severance and excise taxes and royalties, and other payments to governmental agencies;
assumptions concerning the timing for the development of the reserves; and
assumptions concerning equipment and productivity, future coal prices, operating costs, including costs for critical supplies such as fuel and tires, capital expenditures and development and reclamation costs.
Each of these factors may vary considerably. As a result, estimates of the quantities and qualities of economically recoverable coal attributable to any particular group of properties, classifications of reserves based on risk of recovery, estimated cost of production, and estimates of future net cash flows expected from these properties as prepared by different engineers, or by the same engineers at different times, may vary materially due to changes in the foregoing factors and assumptions. Therefore, our estimates may not accurately reflect our actual reserves. Actual production, revenues and expenditures with respect to reserves will likely vary from estimates, and these variances may be material. Any inaccuracy in our estimates related to our reserves could result in decreased profitability from lower than expected revenues and/or higher than expected costs.
Our inability to develop coal reserves in an economically feasible manner could materially and adversely affect our business.
Our future success depends upon our ability to continue developing economically recoverable coal reserves. If we fail to develop additional coal reserves, our existing reserves eventually will be depleted. We may not be able to obtain replacement reserves when we require them. Replacement reserves may not be available or, if available, may not be capable of being mined at costs comparable to those characteristic of the depleting mines. Our ability to develop coal reserves in the future also may be limited by the availability of cash we generate from our operations or available financing, restrictions under our existing or future financing arrangements, the lack of suitable opportunities or the inability to acquire coal properties or leases on commercially reasonable terms. If we are unable to develop replacement reserves, our future production may decrease significantly and this may have a material and adverse impact on our cash flows, financial position and results of operations.
Mining in Central Appalachia is more complex and involves more regulatory constraints than mining in other areas of the U.S., which could affect our mining operations and cost structures in these areas.
Our coal mines are located in Virginia and West Virginia, in what is known as the Central Appalachian region. The geological characteristics of Central Appalachian coal reserves, such as coal seam thickness, make them complex and costly to mine. As compared to mines in other regions, permitting, licensing and other environmental and regulatory requirements are more costly and time consuming to satisfy. These factors could materially adversely affect the mining operations and cost structures of coal produced at our mines in Central Appalachia.
A defect in title or the loss of a leasehold interest in certain property could limit our ability to mine our coal reserves or result in significant unanticipated costs.
We conduct a significant part of our coal mining operations on properties that we lease. A title defect or the loss of a lease could adversely affect our ability to mine the associated coal reserves. We may not verify title to our leased properties or associated coal reserves until we have committed to developing those properties or coal reserves. In some cases, the seller or lessor warrants property title. In other cases, separate title confirmation may not be required for leasing reserves where mining has occurred previously. Our right to mine some of our reserves may be adversely affected if defects in title or boundaries exist, or if our leasehold interests are subject to superior property rights of third parties. In order to conduct our mining operations on properties where such defects exist, we may incur unanticipated costs. In addition, some leases require us to produce a minimum quantity of coal and require us to pay minimum production royalties. Our inability to satisfy those requirements may cause the leasehold interest to terminate. In addition, we may not be able to successfully negotiate new leases for properties containing additional reserves, or maintain our leasehold interests in properties where we have not commenced mining operations during the term of the lease.
Disruptions in the quantities of coal produced by our contract mine operators could impair our ability to fill customer orders or increase our operating costs.
We use independent contractors to mine coal at certain of our mining operations. Some of our contract miners may experience adverse geologic mining conditions, operational difficulties, escalated costs, financial difficulties or other factors beyond our control that could affect the availability, pricing and quality of coal produced for us. In addition, market volatility

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and price increases for coal or freight could result in non-performance by third-party suppliers under existing contracts with us, in order to take advantage of the higher prices in the current market. Disruptions in the quantities of coal produced by independent contractors for us could impair our ability to supply our cokemaking facilities and to fill our customer orders. Our profitability or exposure to loss on transactions or relationships such as these depends upon the reliability of the supply or the ability to substitute, when economical, third-party coal sources, with internal production or coal purchased in the market and other factors. Non-performance by contract miners may adversely affect our ability to fulfill deliveries under our coal supply agreements. If we are unable to fill a customer order, or if we are required to purchase coal from other sources in order to satisfy a customer order, we could lose existing customers and our operating costs could increase.
We require a skilled workforce to run our coal mining business. If we or our contractors cannot hire qualified people to meet replacement or expansion needs, our labor costs may increase and we may not be able to achieve planned results.
Efficient coal mining using modern techniques and equipment requires skilled workers in multiple disciplines, including experienced foremen, electricians, equipment operators, engineers and welders, among others. Our future success depends greatly on our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified personnel. We have an aging workforce, and an extended effort to recruit new employees to replace those who retire or a sustained shortage of skilled labor in the areas in which we operate could make it difficult to meet our staffing needs or result in higher labor rates. We also may be forced to hire novice miners, who are required to be accompanied by experienced workers as a safety precaution. These measures could adversely affect our productivity and operating costs. A lack of qualified people also may affect companies that we use to perform certain specialized work. If we or our contractors cannot find enough qualified workers, it may delay completion of projects and increase our costs.
We have reclamation and mine closure obligations. If the assumptions underlying our accruals are inaccurate, we may be required to expend significantly greater amounts than anticipated.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act established operational, reclamation and closure standards for all aspects of surface mining as well as most aspects of deep mining. We accrue for the costs of current mine disturbance and of final mine closure, including the cost of treating mine water discharge where necessary. The amounts recorded are dependent upon a number of variables, including the estimated future retirement costs, estimated proven reserves, assumptions involving profit margins, inflation rates, and the assumed credit-adjusted risk-free interest rates. Furthermore, our reclamation and mine-closing liabilities are unfunded. If these accruals are insufficient, or our cash requirements in a particular year are greater than currently anticipated, our future operating results and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Our failure to obtain or renew surety bonds on acceptable terms could materially and adversely affect our ability to secure reclamation and coal lease obligations and, therefore, our ability to mine or lease coal.
Our reclamation and mine-closing liabilities are unfunded. Federal and state laws require us to obtain surety bonds to secure performance or payment of certain long-term obligations, such as mine closure or reclamation costs, federal and state workers’ compensation costs, coal leases and other obligations. These bonds are typically renewable annually. Surety bond issuers and holders may not continue to renew the bonds or may demand higher fees, additional collateral, including letters of credit or other terms less favorable to us upon those renewals. We are also subject to increases in the amount of surety bonds required by federal and state laws as these laws, or interpretations of these laws, change. Because we are required by state and federal law to have these bonds in place before mining can commence or continue, our failure to maintain (or inability to acquire) these bonds would have a material and adverse impact on us. That failure could result from a variety of factors, including the following: lack of availability, higher expense or unfavorable market terms of new bonds; restrictions on availability of collateral for current and future third-party surety bond issuers under the terms of future indebtedness; our inability to meet certain financial tests with respect to a portion of the post-mining reclamation bonds; and the exercise by third-party surety bond issuers of their right to refuse to renew or issue new bonds.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Your percentage ownership in us may be diluted by future issuances of capital stock or securities or instruments that are convertible into our capital stock, which could reduce your influence over matters on which stockholders vote.
Our Board of Directors has the authority, without action or vote of our stockholders, to issue all or any part of our authorized but unissued shares of common stock, including shares issuable upon the exercise of options, shares that may be issued to satisfy our obligations under our incentive plans, shares of our authorized but unissued preferred stock and securities and instruments that are convertible into our common stock. Issuances of common stock or voting preferred stock would reduce your influence over matters on which our stockholders vote and, in the case of issuances of preferred stock, likely would result in your interest in us being subject to the prior rights of holders of that preferred stock.

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Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock may be limited by restrictive covenants in our debt agreements and by other factors.
Any declaration and payment of future dividends to holders of our common stock are limited by restrictive covenants contained in our debt agreements, and will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, statutory and contractual restrictions applying to the payment of dividends and other considerations that our Board of Directors deems relevant.
Further, we may not have sufficient surplus under Delaware law to be able to pay any dividends in the future. The absence of sufficient surplus may result from extraordinary cash expenses, actual expenses exceeding contemplated costs, funding of capital expenditures or increases in reserves.
Provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could deter or prevent a change in control.
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws contain provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include:
a Board of Directors that is divided into three classes with staggered terms;
action by written consent of stockholders may only be taken unanimously by holders of all our shares of common stock;
rules regarding how our stockholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at stockholder meetings;
the right of our Board of Directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;
limitations on the right of stockholders to remove directors; and
limitations on our ability to be acquired.
The DGCL also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between us and any holder of 15 percent or more of our outstanding common stock.
We believe that these provisions protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors and by providing our Board of Directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board of Directors determines is in our best interests and that of our stockholders.
Any or all of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that some investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
A person or group could establish a substantial position in SunCoke Energy, Inc. stock.
We do not have a shareholder rights plan which may make it easier for a person or group to acquire a substantial position in SunCoke Energy, Inc. stock. Such person or group may have interests adverse to the interests of our other stockholders.
We have a limited operating history as a separate public company, and our historical financial information is not necessarily representative of the results that we would have achieved as a separate, publicly-traded company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.
Our historical financial information for the periods ended prior to the Separation included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is derived from the consolidated financial statements and accounting records of Sunoco. Accordingly, the historical financial information included here does not necessarily reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows that we would have achieved as a separate, publicly-traded company during the periods presented or those that we will achieve in the future primarily as a result of the following factors:
Prior to the Separation, our business was operated by Sunoco as part of its broader corporate organization, rather than as an independent company. Sunoco or one of its affiliates performed various corporate functions for us, including, but not limited to, legal services, treasury, accounting, auditing, risk management, information technology, human resources, corporate affairs, tax administration, certain governance functions (including internal audit and compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002) and external reporting. Our historical financial results reflect allocations of corporate expenses from Sunoco for these and similar functions. These allocations are likely less than the comparable expenses we believe we would have incurred had we operated as a separate public company.

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Previously, our business was integrated with the other businesses of Sunoco. Historically, we have shared economies of scale in costs, employees, vendor relationships and customer relationships. While we entered into transition agreements with Sunoco in connection with the Separation that govern certain commercial and other relationships between us, those transitional arrangements may not fully capture the benefits our businesses have enjoyed as a result of being integrated with the other businesses of Sunoco. The loss of these benefits could have an adverse effect on our cash flows, financial position and results of operations.
Generally, prior to the Separation, our working capital requirements and capital for our general corporate purposes, including acquisitions, research and development and capital expenditures, were satisfied as part of the enterprise-wide cash management policies of Sunoco. In connection with the Separation and the IPO, we obtained financing in the form of our credit facilities and notes. In the future, we may need to obtain additional financing from banks, through public offerings or private placements of debt or equity securities, strategic relationships or other arrangements.
The cost of capital for our business may be higher than Sunoco’s cost of capital prior to the Separation. Other significant changes may occur in our cost structure, management, financing and business operations as a result of operating as a public company separate from Sunoco. The adjustments and allocations we have made in preparing our historical consolidated financial statements may not appropriately reflect our operations during those periods as if we had in fact operated as a stand-alone entity, or what the actual effect of our Separation from Sunoco will be.
Risks Related to Our Master Limited Partnership
We own a significant equity interest in the Partnership.
We own the general partner of the Partnership, which consists of a 2 percent ownership interest and incentive distribution rights, and we currently own a 54.0 percent interest in the Partnership. The Partnership holds a 98 percent interest in each of two entities that own our Haverhill, Ohio and Middletown, Ohio cokemaking facilities and related assets, and also holds a 75 percent interest in the entity that owns our Granite City, Illinois cokemaking facility and related assets. All of the Partnership’s coke sales are made pursuant to long-term take-or-pay agreements, and our financial statements include the consolidated results of the Partnership. The Partnership is subject to operating and regulatory risks which are substantially similar to our own. The occurrence of any of these risks could directly or indirectly affect the Partnership’s, as well as our, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows as the Partnership is a consolidated subsidiary. For additional information about the Partnership, see “Cokemaking Operations” and “Formation of a Master Limited Partnership” in Business and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Operating Results (Items 1 and 7), respectively.
We derive a portion of our cash flows from the quarterly cash distributions we receive due to our equity ownership interest in the Partnership.  If the Partnership is unable to generate sufficient cash flow, its ability to pay quarterly distributions to unitholders (including us) at current levels, or to increase its quarterly distributions in the future, could adversely impact our cash position.
The Partnership’s ability to pay quarterly distributions depends primarily on cash flow. The Partnership’s ability to generate sufficient cash from operations is largely dependent upon its ability to successfully manage its business which may be affected by economic, financial, competitive, and regulatory factors beyond the Partnership’s control.  To the extent the Partnership does not have adequate cash reserves, its ability to pay quarterly distributions to its common unitholders (including us) at current levels, or to increase its quarterly distributions in the future, could be adversely affected.  Due to our equity ownership interest in the Partnership, we derive a portion of our cash flows from the quarterly cash distributions we receive.  If we are unable to obtain sufficient funds from the Partnership at current or increased levels, our cash position could be adversely affected.
We are party to an omnibus agreement with the Partnership that exposes us to various risks and uncertainties.
In connection with the initial public offering of the Partnership and the related contribution to the Partnership of an interest in each of our Haverhill, Ohio and Middletown, Ohio cokemaking facilities, we entered into an omnibus agreement with the Partnership. This omnibus agreement was later amended in connection with the contribution to the Partnership of an interest in our Granite City, Illinois cokemaking assets. Pursuant to this omnibus agreement, we have agreed to grant the Partnership preferential rights to pursue certain growth opportunities we identify in the U.S. and Canada and a right of first offer to acquire certain of our cokemaking assets located in the U.S. and Canada for so long as we control the Partnership’s general partner. In addition, pursuant to this agreement, we have agreed, for a period of five years from the closing of the initial public offering, to make the Partnership whole, in certain circumstances, to the extent of a customer’s failure to satisfy its obligations or to the extent a customer’s obligations are reduced. Additionally, pursuant to this agreement, we have agreed to indemnify the Partnership for certain environmental remediation projects costs arising prior to the contribution of the interests in the Haverhill, Ohio, Middletown, Ohio and Granite City, Illinois cokemaking facilities. The omnibus agreement further provides that we will fully indemnify the Partnership with respect to certain tax liabilities arising prior to, or in connection

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with, the contribution of the interests in the Haverhill, Ohio, Middletown, Ohio and Granite City, Illinois cokemaking facilities, and that we will cure or fully indemnify the Partnership for losses resulting from certain title defects at the properties owned by the Partnership or its subsidiaries. Our obligations and the extent of our exposures that may arise under the omnibus agreement are subject to various contingencies and cannot be estimated with certainty at this time.
The tax treatment of the Partnership depends on its status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, as well as not being subject to a material amount of entity level taxation by individual states. If the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) treats the Partnership as a corporation or it becomes subject to a material amount of entity level taxation for state tax purposes, it would substantially reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to its unitholders, including SunCoke Energy.
The anticipated after-tax economic benefit of SunCoke Energy’s investment in the common units of the Partnership depends largely on the Partnership being treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. The Partnership has not requested, and does not plan to request, a ruling from the IRS on this matter. The IRS may adopt positions that differ from the ones the Partnership has taken. A successful IRS contest of the federal income tax positions the Partnership takes may impact adversely the market for its common units, and the costs of any IRS contest will reduce the Partnership’s cash available for distribution to unitholders, including SunCoke Energy. If the Partnership was treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, it would pay federal income tax at the corporate tax rate, and likely would pay state income tax at varying rates. Distributions to unitholders, including SunCoke Energy, generally would be taxed again as corporate distributions. Treatment of the Partnership as a corporation would result in a material reduction in its anticipated cash flow and after-tax return to unitholders, including SunCoke Energy. Current law may change so as to cause the Partnership to be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes or to otherwise subject it to a material level of entity level taxation. States are evaluating ways to subject partnerships to entity level taxation through the imposition of state income, franchise and other forms of taxation. If any of these states were to impose a tax on the Partnership, the cash available for distribution to unitholders, including SunCoke Energy, would be reduced.
The tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships or an investment in the Partnership’s common units could be subject to potential legislative, judicial or administrative changes and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
The present federal income tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships, including the Partnership, or an investment in its common units, may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial interpretation at any time. Any modification to the federal income tax laws and interpretations thereof may or may not be applied retroactively. Moreover, any such modification could make it more difficult or impossible for the Partnership to meet the exception which allows publicly traded partnerships that generate qualifying income to be treated as partnerships (rather than corporations) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, affect or cause us to change our business activities, or affect the tax consequences of an investment in its common units. For example, members of Congress have been considering substantive changes to the definition of qualifying income and the treatment of certain types of income earned from partnerships. While these specific proposals would not appear to affect the treatment of the Partnership as a partnership, we are unable to predict whether any of these changes, or other proposals, will ultimately be enacted. Any such changes could negatively impact the value of SunCoke Energy’s investment in the Partnership’s common units.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.
Properties
Properties
We own the following real property:
Approximately 66 acres in Vansant (Buchanan County), Virginia, on which the Jewell cokemaking facility is located, along with an additional approximately 2,550 acres including the offices, warehouse and support buildings for our Jewell coal and coke affiliates located in Buchanan County, Virginia, as well as other general property holdings and unoccupied land in Buchanan County, Virginia and McDowell County, West Virginia. In addition, we own certain mineral rights on approximately 1,650 acres of property in Buchanan, Dickenson and Wise Counties, Virginia.
Approximately 250 acres in Russell County, Virginia owned by the HKCC Companies, which include a warehousing facility, two coal preparation plants and certain coal loadout facilities as well as unoccupied land.

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Approximately 400 acres in Franklin Furnace (Scioto County), Ohio, on which the Haverhill cokemaking facility (both the first and second phases) is located.
Approximately 41 acres in Granite City (Madison County), Illinois, adjacent to the U.S. Steel Granite City Works facility, on which the Granite City cokemaking facility is located. Upon the earlier of ceasing production at the facility or the end of 2044, U.S. Steel has the right to repurchase the property, including the facility, at the fair market value of the land. Alternatively, U.S. Steel may require us to demolish and remove the facility and remediate the site to original condition upon exercise of its option to repurchase the land.
Approximately 250 acres in Middletown (Butler County), Ohio near AK Steel’s Middletown Works facility, on which the Middletown cokemaking facility is located.
Approximately 180 acres in Ceredo (Wayne County), West Virginia and approximately 36 acres in White Creek (Boyd County), Kentucky on which KRT has two coal terminals and one liquids terminal for its coal blending and handling services along the Ohio and Big Sandy Rivers.
We lease the following real property:
Approximately 88 acres of land located in East Chicago (Lake County), Indiana, on which the Indiana Harbor cokemaking facility is located and the coal handling and blending facilities that service the Indiana Harbor cokemaking facility. The leased property is inside ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Works facility and is part of an enterprise zone.
Approximately 22 acres of land located in Buchanan County, Virginia, on which one of our coal preparation plants is located.
Approximately 25 acres in Belle (Kanawha County), West Virginia on which KRT has a coal terminal for its coal blending and handling services along the Kanawha River.
Our former corporate headquarters located in Knoxville, Tennessee, under a ten year lease which commenced in 2007. This space is being marketed to sublease to another tenant for the remainder of the lease term, although we will remain directly liable to the landlord under the original lease.
Our corporate headquarters is located in leased office space in Lisle, Illinois under an 11-year lease that commenced in 2011.
In addition, we lease small parcels of land, mineral rights and coal mining rights for approximately 127 thousand acres of land in Buchanan and Russell Counties, Virginia and McDowell County, West Virginia. Substantially all of the leases are “life of mine” agreements that extend our mining rights until all reserves have been recovered. These leases convey mining rights to us in exchange for payment of certain royalties and/or fixed fees. We use internal land managers and attorneys to perform title reviews on properties prior to obtaining coal leases.

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Set forth below is a map depicting the properties and facilities of our coal mining operations.

The table below sets forth the proven and probable metallurgical coal reserves at our Jewell coal mining operations as of December 31, 2014:
 
Total Demonstrated Reserves (millions of tons)(1)(2)
 
Reserves
 
Tons by
Assignment
 
Tons by
Mining Type
 
Tons by
Permit Status
 
Tons by
Property Control
Seam
Total
 
Proven
 
Probable
 
Assigned
 
Unassigned
 
Surface
 
Deep
 
Permitted
 
Not
Permitted
 
Owned
 
Leased
Hagy
0.30

 
0.14

 
0.16

 
0.04

 
0.26

 

 
0.30

 
0.04

 
0.26

 

 
0.30

Middle Splashdam
1.58

 
1.42

 
0.16

 
0.27

 
1.31

 

 
1.58

 
0.27

 
1.31

 

 
1.58

Upper Banner
0.52

 
0.41

 
0.11

 

 
0.52

 

 
0.52

 

 
0.52

 

 
0.52

Kennedy
2.70

 
2.22

 
0.48

 
0.06

 
2.64

 

 
2.70

 
0.06

 
2.64

 

 
2.70

Red Ash
26.47

 
16.33

 
10.14

 
2.79

 
23.68

 

 
26.47

 
2.79

 
23.68

 

 
26.47

Jawbone Rider
7.28

 
4.27

 
3.01

 
0.01

 
7.27

 

 
7.28

 
0.01

 
7.27

 

 
7.28

Jawbone (JB30)
40.49

 
23.88

 
16.61

 
8.08

 
32.41

 
0.30

 
40.19

 
8.08

 
32.41

 

 
40.49

Tiller
11.12

 
7.86

 
3.26

 
8.07

 
3.05

 
0.03

 
11.09

 
8.07

 
3.05

 

 
11.12

Grand Total
90.46

 
56.53

 
33.93

 
19.32

 
71.14

 
0.33

 
90.13

 
19.32

 
71.14

 

 
90.46


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(1)
All tons are recoverable, reserve tons utilizing appropriate mine recovery, wash recovery at 1.50 float, preparation plant efficiency, and moisture factors.
(2)
Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding.
The table below sets forth a summary of the proven and probable metallurgical coal reserves of the HKCC Companies as of December 31, 2014:
 
Total Demonstrated Reserves (millions of tons)(1)(2)
 
Reserves
 
Tons by
Assignment
 
Tons by
Mining Type
 
Tons by
Permit Status
 
Tons by
Property Control
Seam
Total
 
Proven
 
Probable
 
Assigned
 
Unassigned
 
Surface
 
Deep
 
Permitted
 
Not
Permitted
 
Owned
 
Leased
Lower Banner
2.04

 
1.15

 
0.89

 
2.04

 

 
0.71

 
1.33
 
0.27

 
1.77
 
0.03

 
2.01

Kennedy
3.25

 
2.82

 
0.43

 
3.25

 

 
0.19

 
3.06
 
0.55

 
2.70
 
0.04

 
3.21

Red Ash
4.98

 
4.52

 
0.46

 
4.98

 

 

 
4.98
 

 
4.98
 

 
4.98

Jawbone Rider
7.60

 
6.76

 
0.84

 
7.60

 

 

 
7.60
 

 
7.60
 

 
7.60

Jawbone (JB20-30 & JB 10-30)
1.44

 
1.43

 
0.01

 
1.44

 

 

 
1.44
 

 
1.44
 

 
1.44

Grand Total
19.31

 
16.68

 
2.63

 
19.31

 

 
0.90

 
18.41
 
0.82

 
18.49
 
0.07

 
19.24

(1)
All tons are recoverable, reserve tons utilizing appropriate mine recovery, wash recovery at 1.50 float, and moisture factors.
(2)
Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding.
The table below sets forth the historical amount of coal produced at our coal mining operations:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
(thousands of tons)
Company Operated Mines
817

 
783

 
867

 
842

 
878

Contractor Operated Mines(1)
413

 
559

 
609

 
522

 
226

Total
1,230

 
1,342

 
1,476

 
1,364

 
1,104

(1)
These amounts include coal production of the HKCC Companies, which we acquired in January 2011.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
The EPA has issued notices of violations, or NOVs, to us for our Haverhill, Granite City, Indiana Harbor cokemaking facilities. The information regarding these NOVs is presented in Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements.
Many other legal and administrative proceedings are pending or may be brought against us arising out of our current and past operations, including matters related to commercial and tax disputes, product liability, antitrust, employment claims, premises-liability claims, allegations of exposures of third parties to toxic substances and general environmental claims. Although the ultimate outcome of these proceedings cannot be ascertained at this time, it is reasonably possible that some of them could be resolved unfavorably to us. Our management believes that any liabilities that may arise from such matters would not be material in relation to our business or our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows at December 31, 2014.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
The information concerning mine safety violations and other regulatory matters that we are required to report in accordance with Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is included in Exhibit 95.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholders Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Shares of our common stock, which is traded under the stock trading symbol “SXC”, have been trading since July 21, 2011, when our stock was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The table below provides quarterly price ranges of our common stock, for the two most recent fiscal years, based on the high and low prices from intraday trades.
 
2014
 
2013
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$
23.85

 
$
19.82

 
$
17.47

 
$
16.05

Second Quarter
23.90

 
19.52

 
16.41

 
14.02

Third Quarter
24.57

 
21.22

 
17.14

 
13.71

Fourth Quarter
24.09

 
17.75

 
23.16

 
17.15

Performance Graph
The graph below matches SunCoke Energy, Inc.'s cumulative 41-Month total shareholder return on common stock with the cumulative total returns of the S&P Small Cap 600 index and the Dow Jones U.S. Iron & Steel index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each index (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from July 21, 2011 to December 31, 2014.
In selecting the indices for comparison, we considered market capitalization and industry or line-of-business. The S&P Small Cap 600 is a broad equity market index comprised of companies of between $300 million and $1.4 billion. SunCoke is a part of this index. The Dow Jones U.S. Iron & Steel index is comprised of both U.S.-based steel and metals manufacturing and coal and iron ore mining companies. While we do not manufacture steel, we do produce coke, an essential ingredient in the blast furnace production of steel. In addition, we have coal mining operations. Accordingly, we believe the Dow Jones U.S. Iron & Steel index is appropriate for comparison purposes.

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Table of Contents

Holders
As of February 20, 2015, we had a total of 66,309,471 issued and outstanding shares of our common stock and had 14,756 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends
On October 23, 2014, the Company's Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.0585 per share, which was paid on November 28, 2014 to shareholders of record at the close of business on November 14, 2014. On February 19, 2015, the Company's Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.0585 per share, which will be paid on March 26, 2015 to shareholders of record at the close of business on March 5, 2015. Our payment of dividends in the future, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings, liquidity and capital requirements, covenants in our debt agreements and other factors.
Share Repurchase Program
On February 16, 2012, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase an aggregate amount of up to 3,500,000 shares of our common stock through the end of 2015. These repurchases could be made in the open market, through privately negotiated transactions, block transactions or otherwise in order to counter the dilutive impact of exercised stock options and the vesting of restricted stock grants. This program, under which nearly 1.8 million shares were repurchased, was superseded and replaced by a new and larger program discussed below.
On July 23, 2014, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.01 par value, at any time and from time to time in the open market, through privately negotiated transactions, block transactions, or otherwise for a total aggregate cost to the Company not to exceed $150.0 million.
As part of the new $150.0 million program, the Company's Board of Directors has authorized the Company to purchase shares of Company common stock directly from an investment bank, or broker, pursuant to an accelerated share repurchase arrangement, or similar contract. In accordance with this authorization, the Company entered into a share repurchase agreement for an aggregate cost to the Company of $75.0 million on July 29, 2014. In October 2014, 3.2 million shares were delivered to the Company at an average price of $23.28 per share, completing the $75.0 million forward share repurchase agreement, and leaving $75.0 million available under the repurchase program.
 
Period
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs
 
Maximum
Dollar Value
that May Yet
Be Purchased
under the
Plans or
Programs
 
 
(In millions, except per share amounts)
October 1 – 31, 2014
 
3,221,760

 
$
23.28

 
3,221,760

 
$
75,000,000

November 1 – 30, 2014
 

 
$

 

 
$
75,000,000

December 1 – 31, 2014
 

 
$

 

 
$
75,000,000

For the quarter ended December 31, 2014
 
3,221,760

 
 
 
 
 
 
On January 28, 2015, under the existing July 2014 share repurchase program authorization, the Company entered into a second share repurchase agreement for the buyback of $20.0 million of our common stock by the end of March 2015, leaving $55.0 million available under the repurchase program. The actual number of shares repurchased will be based on the volume-weighted average share price of our common stock less a pre-determined discount during the term of the agreement.
Equity Distribution Agreement
On August 5, 2014, the Partnership entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Equity Agreement”) with Wells Fargo Securities, LLC (“Wells Fargo”). Pursuant to the terms of the Equity Agreement, the Partnership may sell from time to time through Wells Fargo, the Partnership’s common units representing limited partner interests having an aggregate offering price of up to $75.0 million. Sales of the common units, if any, will be made by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions through the facilities of the New York Stock Exchange at market prices, in block transactions, or as otherwise agreed by the Partnership and Wells Fargo, by means of any other existing trading market for the common units or to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. The common units will be issued pursuant to the Partnership’s existing effective shelf registration statement.

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Under the terms of the Equity Agreement, the Partnership also may sell common units to Wells Fargo as principal for its own account at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. Any sale of common units to Wells Fargo as principal would be pursuant to the terms of a separate terms agreement between the Partnership and Wells Fargo.
During 2014, the Partnership sold 62,956 common units under the Equity Agreement with an aggregate offering price of $1.8 million, leaving $73.2 million available under the Equity Agreement.
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
The following table presents summary consolidated operating results and other information of SunCoke Energy and should be read in conjunction with "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The historical combined financial statements for periods prior to the Separation Date include the accounts of all operations that comprised the cokemaking and coal mining operations of Sunoco, after elimination of all intercompany balances and transactions within the combined group of companies. The historical combined financial statements also include allocations of certain Sunoco corporate expenses. Our management believes the assumptions and methodologies underlying the allocation of corporate and other expenses were reasonable. However, such expenses should not be considered indicative of the actual level of expense that we would have incurred if we had operated as an independent, publicly-traded company during the periods prior to the IPO or of the costs expected to be incurred in future periods.
The weighted average number of common shares outstanding used in the computation of earnings attributable to SunCoke Energy, Inc. / net parent investment per common share for periods prior to 2012 includes 70.0 million shares of common stock owned by Sunoco on the Separation Date as a result of its contribution of the assets of its cokemaking and coal mining operations to us and related capitalization.
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
Operating Results:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
$
1,472.7

 
$
1,585.5

 
$
1,864.7

 
$
1,493.5

 
$
1,325.6

Operating income
$
109.8

 
$
136.5

 
$
147.6

 
$
32.0

 
$
172.1

Income from continuing operations
$
4.2

 
$
65.6

 
$
82.0

 
$
37.6

 
$
143.1

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
$
24.3

 
$
25.1

 
$
3.7

 
$
(1.7
)
 
$
7.1

(Loss) income from continuing operations attributable to SunCoke Energy, Inc. / net parent investment
$
(20.1
)
 
$
40.5

 
$
78.3

 
$
39.3

 
$
136.0

(Loss) earnings from continuing operations attributable to SunCoke Energy, Inc. / net parent investment per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.29
)
 
$
0.58

 
$
1.12

 
$
1.94

 
$
0.56

Diluted
$
(0.29
)
 
$
0.58

 
$
1.11

 
$
1.94

 
$
0.56

Other Information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
139.0

 
$
233.6

 
$
239.2

 
$
127.5

 
$
40.1

Total assets
$
1,998.1

 
$
2,243.9

 
$
2,011.0

 
$
1,941.8

 
$
1,718.4

Total debt
$
651.5

 
$
689.1

 
$
723.4

 
$
726.4

 
$

SunCoke Energy, Inc. stockholders’ equity / net parent investment
$
431.7

 
$
557.4

 
$
539.1

 
$
525.5

 
$
369.5


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Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements of expected future developments, as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business, operations and industry that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements regarding our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Our future results and financial condition may differ materially from those we currently anticipate as a result of the factors we describe under “Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors.”
This “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” is based on financial data derived from the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and certain other financial data that is prepared using non-GAAP measures. For a reconciliation of these non-GAAP measures to the most comparable GAAP components, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” at the end of this Item.
The results of our coal mining operations have been classified as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Unless otherwise specified, the information in this Management's Discussion and Analysis relates to our continuing operations.
Overview
SunCoke Energy, Inc. (“SunCoke Energy”, “Company”, “we”, “our” and “us”) is the largest independent producer of high-quality coke in the Americas, as measured by tons of coke produced each year, and has more than 50 years of coke production experience. Coke is a principal raw material in the blast furnace steelmaking process. Coke is generally produced by heating metallurgical coal in a refractory oven, which releases certain volatile components from the coal, thus transforming the coal into coke.
We have designed, developed, built, own and operate five cokemaking facilities in the United States (“U.S.”) with collective nameplate capacity to produce approximately 4.2 million tons of coke per year. Additionally, we have designed and operate one cokemaking facility in Brazil under licensing and operating agreements on behalf of our customer. We have a preferred stock investment in the project company that owns this facility, which has approximately 1.7 million tons of annual cokemaking capacity. In March 2013, we formed a cokemaking joint venture with VISA Steel Limited ("VISA Steel") in India called VISA SunCoke Limited ("VISA SunCoke"), which has cokemaking capacity of 440 thousand tons of coke per year.
Our cokemaking ovens utilize efficient, modern heat recovery technology designed to combust the coal’s volatile components liberated during the cokemaking process and use the resulting heat to create steam or electricity for sale. This differs from by-product cokemaking which repurposes the coal’s liberated volatile components for other uses. We have constructed the only greenfield cokemaking facilities in the U.S. in the last 25 years and are the only North American coke producer that utilizes heat recovery technology in the cokemaking process. We believe that heat recovery technology has several advantages over the alternative by-product cokemaking process, including producing higher quality coke, using waste heat to generate steam or electricity for sale and reducing the environmental impact.
Our Granite City facility, the first phase of our Haverhill facility, or Haverhill 1, and our VISA SunCoke joint venture have steam generation facilities which use hot flue gas from the cokemaking process to produce steam for sale to customers pursuant to steam supply and purchase agreements. Granite City and Haverhill 1 sell steam to third-parties and VISA SunCoke sells steam to VISA Steel. Our Middletown facility and the second phase of our Haverhill facility, or Haverhill 2, have cogeneration plants that use the hot flue gas created by the cokemaking process to generate electricity, which is either sold into the regional power market or to AK Steel pursuant to energy sales agreements.
We own and operate coal mining operations in Virginia and West Virginia with more than 110 million tons of proven and probable reserves at December 31, 2014. In 2014, we sold approximately 1.5 million tons of metallurgical coal (including internal sales to our cokemaking operations) and 0.1 million tons of thermal coal. We are pursuing the exit of our coal mining business and have presented the results of our coal operations as discontinued operations and held for sale in the consolidated financial statements.
We also provide coal handling and blending services with our Coal Logistics business. Our terminal located in East Chicago, Indiana, SunCoke Lake Terminal, LLC ("Lake Terminal") provides coal handling and blending services to SunCoke's Indiana Harbor cokemaking operations. Kanawha River Terminals ("KRT") is a leading metallurgical and thermal coal blending and handling terminal service provider with collective capacity to blend and transload 30 million tons of coal annually through operations in West Virginia and Kentucky. Coal is transported from the mine site in numerous ways, including rail, truck, barge or ship. Our coal terminals act as intermediaries between coal producers and coal end users by providing transloading, storage and blending services. We do not take possession of coal in our Coal Logistics business, but instead earn revenue by providing coal handling and blending services to our customers on a fee per ton basis. We provide blending and handling services to steel, coke (including some of our domestic cokemaking facilities), electric utility and coal producing customers.

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Incorporated in Delaware in 2010 and headquartered in Lisle, Illinois, we became a publicly-traded company in 2011 and our stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “SXC.” As discussed below, our separation (“Separation”) from Sunoco, Inc. (“Sunoco”) was completed in 2012.
Our Separation from Sunoco
On January 17, 2012 (the “Distribution Date”), we became an independent, publicly-traded company following the separation, which occurred in two steps:
We were formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sunoco. On July 18, 2011 (the “Separation Date”), Sunoco contributed the subsidiaries, assets and liabilities that were primarily related to its cokemaking and coal mining operations to us in exchange for shares of our common stock. As of such date, Sunoco owned 100 percent of our common stock. On July 26, 2011, we completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of 13,340,000 shares of our common stock, or 19.1 percent of our outstanding common stock. Following the IPO, Sunoco continued to own 56,660,000 shares of our common stock, or 80.9 percent of our outstanding common stock.
On the Distribution Date, Sunoco made a pro-rata, tax free distribution (the “Distribution”) of the remaining shares of our common stock that it owned in the form of a special stock dividend to Sunoco shareholders. Sunoco shareholders received 0.53046456 of a share of common stock for every share of Sunoco common stock held as of the close of business on January 5, 2012, the record date for the Distribution. After the Distribution, Sunoco ceased to own any shares of our common stock.
Formation of a Master Limited Partnership
On January 24, 2013, we completed the initial public offering of SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., a master limited partnership (“the Partnership”), through the sale of 13,500,000 common units representing limited partner interests in the Partnership, in exchange for $231.8 million of net proceeds (the "Partnership offering"). The key assets of the Partnership at the time of formation were a 65 percent interest in each of our Haverhill and Middletown cokemaking and heat recovery facilities. Upon the closing of the Partnership offering, we owned a 2 percent general partner interest of the Partnership, all the incentive distribution rights, and a 55.9 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership. The remaining 42.1 percent interest in the Partnership was held by public unitholders and has been reflected in noncontrolling interest on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Consolidated Balance Sheet since the first quarter of 2013. We are also party to an omnibus agreement pursuant to which we will provide remarketing efforts to the Partnership upon the occurrence of certain potential adverse events under our coke sales agreements, indemnification of certain environmental costs and preferential rights for growth opportunities.
In connection with the closing of the Partnership offering, we entered into an amendment to our Credit Agreement and the Partnership issued $150.0 million of senior notes ("Partnership Notes") and repaid $225.0 million of our Term Loan. For a more detailed discussion see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements. Pursuant to the dropdown transaction described below, the Partnership's key assets as of December 31, 2014 consisted of a 98 percent interest in the Haverhill and Middletown facilities and 100 percent interest in the coal handling and blending facilities acquired in 2013.
Dropdown Transactions
On May 9, 2014, SunCoke Energy contributed an additional 33 percent interest in the Haverhill and Middletown cokemaking facilities to the Partnership for a total transaction value of $365.0 million (the "Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown"). After the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown, SunCoke Energy continued to own a 2 percent general partner interest in the Partnership, all of the incentive distribution rights, and a 54.1 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership, a decrease from the 55.9 percent interest held at December 31, 2013. Upon the closing of the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown transaction, public unitholders held a 43.9 percent interest in the Partnership, which is reflected as a noncontrolling interest in the consolidated financial statements. We accounted for the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown as an equity transaction, which resulted in a decrease in noncontrolling interest and an increase in SunCoke's equity of $83.7 million.
Total value received by SunCoke Energy for the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown included 2.7 million common units totaling $80.0 million and $3.3 million of general partner interests. In addition, the Partnership assumed and repaid approximately $271.3 million of our outstanding debt and other liabilities, including paying a market premium of $11.4 million to complete the tender of the senior unsecured notes. The remaining $10.4 million of transaction value consisted of $3.4 million in cash as well as $7.0 million retained by the Partnership to pre-fund our obligation to the Partnership for the anticipated cost of the environmental remediation project at Haverhill.
In conjunction with the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown, the Partnership closed on the issuance of 3.2 million common units to the public for $88.7 million of net proceeds, completed on April 30, 2014, and received approximately $263.1 million of gross proceeds from the issuance of $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.375 percent senior notes due

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2020 through a private placement on May 9, 2014. In addition, the Partnership received $5.0 million to fund interest from February 1, 2014 to May 9, 2014, the period prior to the issuance. This interest was paid to noteholders on August 1, 2014.
The Consolidated Statement of Operations included $18.5 million of costs related to the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown recorded during 2014, including an $11.4 million market premium to complete the tender of the senior unsecured notes, $4.0 million of debt extinguishment costs, $1.7 million of transaction costs and $1.4 million of incremental interest expense related to changes in debt balances and interest rates.
Subsequent to year end, on January 13, 2015, we contributed a 75 percent interest in the Granite City cokemaking facility to the Partnership for a total transaction value of $245.0 million (the "Granite City Dropdown"). The remaining 25 percent interest will continue to be owned by the Company. The total transaction value of $245.0 million included $50.7 million of Partnership common units issued to the Company and approximately $1.0 million of general partner interests to maintain the general partner’s 2 percent interest in the Partnership. In addition, the Partnership assumed and repaid $135.0 million of our Notes as well as $5.6 million of accrued interest and the applicable redemption premium of $7.7 million. The Partnership funded the redemption of the Notes with net proceeds from a private placement of $200.0 million add-on 7.375 percent Partnership Notes due in 2020. The Partnership withheld the remaining transaction value of $45.0 million to pre-fund our obligation to the Partnership for the anticipated cost of the environmental remediation project at Haverhill. Subsequent to the Granite City Dropdown, we own the general partner of the Partnership, which consists of 2.0 percent ownership interest and incentive distribution rights, and a 56.1 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership. The remaining 41.9 percent limited partner interest in the Partnership is held by public unitholders.
2014 Key Financial Results
Total revenues were $1,472.7 million in 2014 compared to $1,585.5 million in 2013. The decrease was primarily due to the pass-through of lower coal prices within our Domestic Coke segment. Lower coke sales volumes at our Indiana Harbor and Haverhill facilities also reduced revenues. These decreases were partially offset by a full year contribution of revenues from our Coal Logistics segment, which was acquired during the second half of 2013.
Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations was $237.8 million in 2014 compared to $221.8 million in 2013. This increase was primarily driven by a $9.6 million increase in Adjusted EBITDA from our Coal Logistics segment due to the timing of acquisitions during 2013. Also increasing Adjusted EBITDA was the impact of our contract renewal at Indiana Harbor, which contains an increase in the fixed fee per ton of coke produced.
Income from continuing operations was $4.2 million in 2014 compared to $65.6 million in 2013 and was impacted by the items described above as well as the following:
Impairment charges in 2014 of $30.5 million related to our equity method investment in Visa SunCoke and $16.8 million related to our coal preparation plant, which is a legacy asset that is excluded from discontinued operations as it is not expected to be part of the sale of our coal mining business.
Higher depreciation expense of $19.0 million driven by additional depreciation on certain assets at our Indiana Harbor facility; and
Higher interest expense of $10.9 million primarily related to debt refinancing activities.
Net loss attributable to shareholders was $126.1 million in 2014 compared to net income attributable to shareholders of $25.0 million in 2013 and was impacted by the items described above as well as the following:
Increases in loss on discontinued operations, net of tax, to $106.0 million in 2014 from $15.5 million in 2013 due primarily to impairment charges of $133.5 million, or $81.9 million, net of tax in 2014, as well as a decline in the average coal sales price of $18 per ton partly offset by lower coal cash production costs of $9 per ton.
Cash generated from continuing operating activities was $130.0 million in 2014 compared to $156.7 million in 2013, driven by working capital changes largely due to higher inventory levels and the timing of accounts payable.
Our Focus in 2014
For the Company, 2014 was a year of solid operating performance, despite a weather-challenged first quarter. Our strategies and accomplishments were as follows:
Sustained a high-level of operating performance in the Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics operations; made progress on stabilizing our India joint venture

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Actively marketed sale of coal operations while continuing to drive improvements and efficiencies in our operations; developed coal rationalization plan to minimize losses while pursuing sale of coal operations
Executed dropdown of cokemaking assets to the Partnership and returned capital to shareholders by way of share buyback and initiation of dividend
Explored growth opportunities in cokemaking, coal logistics and a potential entry into the ferrous value chain
Sustained a high-level of operating performance in our Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics operations; made progress on stabilizing our India joint venture
The Domestic Coke operations maintained positive momentum generating Adjusted EBITDA of approximately $59.25 per ton, up from $57.05 per ton in the prior year, on approximately 4.2 million tons of coke produced. Adjusted EBITDA was $247.9 million, $4.7 million higher than the prior year despite a weather-challenged first quarter. The increase over the prior year was primarily driven by performance at the Indiana Harbor cokemaking facility, which benefited from the terms of our ten-year contract renewal, signed in fourth quarter 2013. The contract renewal contained an increase in the fixed fee per ton of coke produced to recognize the additional capital deployed for the refurbishment project. Coal Logistics was successfully integrated and contributed $14.3 million to Adjusted EBITDA, which reflects the full year contribution of these operations. We remain committed to maintaining a safe work environment and ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations. During 2014, we sustained top-quartile safety and strong environmental performance in the Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics operations.
During 2014, we completed the original refurbishment project at our Indiana Harbor cokemaking facility and are currently in the process of commissioning the new pusher/charger equipment. While performing the refurbishment work, we identified certain ovens that required a complete replacement of the oven floors and sole flues. The replacement work was started in 2014 and will continue through 2015. Operational and equipment challenges, as well as the impact of severe weather in the first quarter, caused production levels to fall below nameplate capacity of 1.22 million tons in 2014. The full ramp up of production has been slower than anticipated, but we expect to exit 2015 at a run-rate of nameplate production.
We successfully completed the construction of the gas sharing environmental remediation project at Haverhill 2 during 2014 and are in the process of testing full implementation of this system. We also began work on the gas sharing project to enhance environmental performance at our Haverhill 1 cokemaking facility.
Market conditions during 2014 continued to be very challenging for our Indian joint venture, Visa SunCoke. Sales volume declined as the joint venture faced a number of headwinds, primarily a weak coke pricing environment due to an increase in Chinese coke imports. To address these headwinds, the joint venture was able to turn down production, without jeopardizing the stability of the cokemaking assets, and optimize coal blends to reduce costs. During 2014, as a result of these continued market challenges, we evaluated the recoverability of our equity method investment in Visa SunCoke and recorded an other-than-temporary impairment charge of $30.5 million. See Note 24 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the impairment recorded.
Actively marketed sale of coal operations while continuing to drive improvements and efficiencies in our operations; developed coal rationalization plan to minimize losses while pursuing sale of coal operations
The coal mining industry remains challenging, and in 2014 we began exploring strategic options to exit the coal mining business. We have been actively marketing the sale of the coal mining business but believe the increasingly difficult coal pricing environment impeded the sale of the entire coal business in 2014, although we did execute a definitive agreement to sell the Harold Keene Coal Companies (“HKCC”) in the fourth quarter of 2014. We will continue to pursue the sale of the remaining coal mining business in 2015. To help minimize losses, while still providing a cost effective and reliable supply of coal to our Jewell cokemaking facility, we implemented a coal rationalization plan in December 2014. Under the coal rationalization plan, we will source a portion of the coal from external coal suppliers and will implement a contract mining model, which will use contract miners to mine our coal reserves. As part of this coal rationalization plan, we will idle various mines and reduce production by approximately 50 percent, transition coal washing activities to a third party provider and eliminate nearly 400 coal mining positions.
During 2014, the coal mining business continued to experience declining coal price headwinds but was successful in reducing cash production costs by $9 per ton by idling certain high cost mines and utilizing mines with lower royalty rates.
Executed dropdown of cokemaking assets to the Partnership and returned capital to shareholders by way of share buyback and initiation of dividend
Prior to January 18, 2014, we were subject to a series of limitations and restrictions on restructuring activities as a result of our tax free spin-off from Sunoco. With the expiration of these restrictions, we initiated a strategy to drop down our entire domestic coke business and Brazilian operations into the Partnership over time. During 2014, we executed the dropdown of an additional 33 percent of our Haverhill and Middletown cokemaking operations to the Partnership.

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During 2014, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a $150 million program to repurchase outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock. As part of this program, the Company entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement for $75.0 million and received 3.2 million shares at an average price of $23.28 per share. At the end of 2014, we had $75.0 million remaining under the repurchase program. Subsequent the December 31, 2014, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase program for $20.0 million, which will be completed by the end of the first quarter.
On October 23, 2014, the Company's Board of Directors declared our first cash dividend of $0.0585 per share, which was paid on November 28, 2014 to shareholders of record at the close of business on November 14, 2014. Our payment of dividends in the future, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings, liquidity and capital requirements, covenants in our debt agreements and other factors.
Explored growth opportunities in cokemaking, coal logistics and a potential entry into the ferrous value chain
We believe that as captive cokemaking facilities continue to age, they will require replacement, which provides us with opportunities to meet future coke demands. During 2014, we finalized the permitting and engineering plan for a potential new cokemaking facility in Kentucky, which would include 120 ovens and approximately 660 thousand tons of annual capacity. We continue to have regular discussions with our customers regarding their long-term coke requirements. However, the timing for construction of this facility and our ability to enter into new commercial arrangements with our customers will always be subject to decisions with respect to their own cokemaking assets, near term growth in coke demand, and general domestic steel industry and market conditions.
In addition, we evaluated selective opportunities to acquire existing cokemaking assets in the U.S. and Canada and determined that in most cases the potential acquisition of existing cokemaking assets would not create value for shareholders. Accordingly, we do not plan to actively pursue this strategy.
We continued to explore opportunities to enter the ferrous segments of the steel value chain, such as iron ore concentration and pelletizing and direct reduced iron production ("DRI"), which can be used in conventional blast furnace or electric arc furnace steelmaking processes. We believe demand for DRI capacity in the U.S. will increase, driven in part by steelmakers' desire for alternative sources of raw materials and the available supply of low cost natural gas. In 2014, we received favorable IRS private letter rulings for both the concentrating and pelletizing of iron ore as well as for DRI and will continue to explore potential opportunities in 2015.
While we pursued potential coal logistics targets in 2014, we were not successful in executing further acquisitions.
Our Focus and Outlook for 2015
In 2015, our primary focus will be to:
Sustain a high-level of operating performance in our Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics segments
Pursue growth opportunities with a focus on industrial raw materials processing and logistics
Exit the coal business while minimizing the cash flow impact and rationalizing coal production
Continue to optimize our capital structure and highlight the value of our coke assets via dropdowns to the Partnership
Enhance shareholder value by returning capital in a disciplined manner
Sustain a high-level of operating performance in our Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics segments
In 2015, we expect continued strong performance from our Domestic Coke and Coal Logistics businesses.
The Domestic Coke segment is projected to contribute approximately $240 million to $255 million of Adjusted EBITDA, or Adjusted EBITDA per ton of $55 to $60 per ton in 2015 based on expected solid ongoing operations and the production of approximately 4.3 million tons.
We expect the ramp-up in production at our Indiana Harbor facility and improvements in its operations will generate Adjusted EBITDA of $25 million to $35 million in 2015, up from $16.4 million in 2014. This Adjusted EBITDA range reflects the operating challenges experienced in the fourth quarter of 2014 to continue through the first quarter of 2015, resulting in production to be approximately 30 thousand to 40 thousand tons below nameplate capacity on a full-year basis. We are actively addressing these operating issues by establishing consistent oven push cycles, mastering new equipment, improving equipment maintenance practices and completing the oven floor and flue replacements. We expect that we will exit 2015 at a run-rate of nameplate production capacity of 1.22 million tons.
The Adjusted EBITDA range also includes the impact of a change in the operating and maintenance cost recovery mechanism. Based on the terms of our contract renewal, the recovery mechanism in 2015 will be based on a fixed rate per ton. This differs versus 2014 which was based on a pass-through mechanism, subject to certain limitations. Although we expect

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total operating and maintenance costs to decrease in 2015, based on the terms of our contract renewal, we anticipate being in an unfavorable operating and maintenance cost recovery position. The fixed rate recovery mechanism established in the contract renewal did not anticipate the increases we expect related to repair work on common tunnels and ovens.
In 2015, we will continue our construction and implementation of our new gas sharing projects to enhance environmental performance at our Haverhill and Granite City cokemaking facilities. We expect to successfully complete the construction of the environmental remediation project at Haverhill 1 and begin the construction of the environmental remediation project at Granite City during 2015.
Pursue growth opportunities with a focus on industrial raw materials processing and logistics
We plan to continue the pursuit of opportunities to expand our Partnership’s footprint in industrial raw materials processing and handling as we believe many of these assets fit well in the master limited partnership structure. We will explore opportunities for acquisitions in attractive and complementary segments of the market, focusing on master limited partnership qualifying income and businesses which exhibit a stable cash flow profile comparable to our core business, based on attractive market structure and limited commodity risk. We believe SunCoke’s ability to efficiently operate capital intensive manufacturing processes should help to enhance profitability post-acquisition.
We are actively seeking acquisitions in the coal logistics space to broaden our reach across U.S. coal basins and leverage the capabilities of KRT and Lake Terminal.  While the continued decline in U.S. coal prices presents headwinds, we believe that our Coal Logistics segment provides an ideal point of entry for inorganic growth in 2015 and beyond.
During 2015, we will also continue to focus our efforts to develop greenfield opportunities through the potential development of a Kentucky cokemaking facility as well as the potential construction of a DRI facility. We have and will continue to seek long-term customer commitments for a majority of the capacity prior to commencing construction on either project.
Exit the coal business while minimizing the cash flow impact and rationalizing coal production
As the pursuit of a sale of the coal business continues, actions to rationalize these operations will continue in 2015 and include immediately idling certain mines to reduce coal production by half to approximately 600 thousand tons annually, to be mined by contractors. Approximately 500 thousand tons of coal are expected to be purchased annually to fulfill the remaining coal requirements to supply the Jewell cokemaking facility. In 2015, we expect to incur additional exit and disposal costs of $1.5 million to $4.5 million associated with employee severance, contract termination and other one time costs to idle mines. Upon a successful sale of the coal business, the Company would likely enter into a long-term coal supply agreement with the buyer.
The Company also plans to decommission the existing coal preparation plant and utilize third parties for coal washing, resulting in approximately $7.7 million of depreciation of the preparation plant assets expected to be recorded during 2015. Utilizing the former site of the preparation plant, we plan to install additional coal handling and storage facilities to enable third-party coal purchases for our Jewell cokemaking facility. The anticipated impact to our Jewell cokemaking facility of the separation from our coal business is estimated to be approximately $7.5 million annually, primarily due to coal blending and handling costs, higher purchased coal tons due to coal moisture levels and incremental employee costs. On a consolidated basis, assuming current market conditions, we anticipate these actions will result in annual run-rate cash and Adjusted EBITDA savings of approximately $20 million by late 2015.
Continue to optimize capital structure and highlight the value of our coke assets via dropdowns to the Partnership
In January 2015, we contributed a 75 percent interest in our Granite City cokemaking facility to the Partnership. During the remainder of 2015, we will continue our transition to a pure play general partner of the Partnership. We expect to complete at least one additional dropdown in 2015 and are on the path to drop down all of our remaining domestic cokemaking assets and our Brazil operations to the Partnership through 2016.
Enhance shareholder value by returning capital in a disciplined manner
We will continue evaluating the appropriate use of capital at SunCoke, including prioritization of growth capital and return of capital to shareholders through additional share repurchases and/or dividend payments, with the expectation of an increase in general partner and limited partner cash flow growth from the Partnership.
Building upon the capital allocation plan initiated in 2014, in January 2015, the Company entered into a share repurchase agreement for the repurchase of $20.0 million of our common stock by the end of March 2015, leaving $55.0 million available under the repurchase program. The actual number of shares repurchased will be based on the volume-weighted average share price of our common stock less a pre-determined discount during the term of the agreement. Additionally, on February 19, 2015, the Company's Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.0585 per share, which will be paid on March 26, 2015 to shareholders of record at the close of business on March 5, 2015.

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Items Impacting Comparability
Discontinued coal business. On July 17, 2014, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the Company to sell and/or otherwise dispose of the Company’s coal mining business.  Concurrent with this authorization, the coal mining operations were, and continue to be, reflected as discontinued operations and the related net assets are presented as held for sale in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The coal mining net assets and results of operations for all periods presented have been reclassified to reflect discontinued operations and held for sale presentation.
During 2014, the Company recorded total impairment charges related to the coal business of $150.3 million. Of these total charges, $133.5 million, or $81.9 million net of tax, was related to the disposal group and was recorded in loss from discontinued operations, net of tax. The remaining $16.8 million related to our coal preparation plant, which is a legacy asset, and was recorded in asset impairment on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Additionally, the Company recorded $18.5 million, or $11.3 million net of tax, in exit and disposal costs during 2014, including $6.0 million in contract termination costs and $12.5 million in employee-related costs related to the execution of coal rationalization plans to scale back mining operations. These exit and disposal costs are included in loss from discontinued operations, net of tax on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. 
Legacy Costs. Concurrent with the presentation of our coal mining business as discontinued operations and held for sale, certain legacy coal mining assets (i.e. coal preparation plant) and liabilities (i.e. black lung, workers' compensation, certain asset retirement obligations and net pension and other postretirement employee benefit obligations) are expected to be retained by the Company and are not part of the disposal group, and therefore, are reported in continuing operations in Corporate and Other. Legacy assets totaled $12.9 million and $30.5 million and legacy liabilities totaled $86.9 million and $68.6 million at December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
In addition to the $16.8 million impairment charge related to the coal preparation plant discussed above, legacy costs of $17.1 million, $0.4 million and $3.9 million are included in continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012. See further detail of these costs in "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this Item. These legacy items are included in Corporate and Other. Legacy costs in 2014 were primarily driven by adjustments to our black lung liability resulting in $14.3 million of expense compared to $0.3 million of income and $3.3 million of expense recorded during 2013 and 2012, respectively, included in costs of products sold and operating expenses on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Our obligation related to black lung benefits was estimated based on various assumptions, including actuarial estimates, discount rates and changes in health care costs. In addition to changes in the discount rate and other assumptions, the estimated liability at December 31, 2014 was heavily impacted by a significant increase in the rate at which claims are awarded. The Company had cash expenditures for settlements of black lung liabilities of $2.8 million, $2.2 million and $2.1 million during the years ended 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Coal Logistics. Coal Logistics reported revenues of $55.0 million, of which $18.8 million were intercompany revenues, Adjusted EBITDA of $14.3 million and Adjusted EBITDA per ton of $0.75 for the year ended December 31, 2014. For the year ended December 31, 2013, Coal Logistics reported revenues of $13.6 million, of which $5.5 million were intercompany revenues, Adjusted EBITDA of $4.7 million and Adjusted EBITDA per ton of $1.24. Comparisons between periods were impacted by the timing of acquisitions in 2013.
India Equity Method Investment. Loss from our equity method investment in Visa SunCoke, which we entered into in March of 2013, was $35.0 million and $2.2 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The 2014 loss included a $30.5 million impairment charge to our investment.
Indiana Harbor Cokemaking Operations. Through an engineering study, we identified major refurbishment projects that were necessary to preserve the production capacity of the Indiana Harbor facility and position the Company to extend its existing coke sale agreement. We completed the refurbishment project in the first half of 2014 and spent approximately $105 million from 2012 to 2014. Effective October 1, 2013, the Company entered into a 10-year extension of its existing Indiana Harbor coke sales agreement, which contains an increase in the fixed fee per ton of coke produced to recognize the additional capital that has been deployed. This increase in fixed fee per ton contributed $7.5 million to Adjusted EBITDA in 2014 as compared to the prior year. As a result of this refurbishment work, the useful lives of certain assets were revised and we recorded additional depreciation of $19.9 million over the refurbishment period. This additional depreciation of $8.2 million, $9.5 million and $2.2 million, or $0.12, $0.14 and $0.03 per common share from continuing operations, was recorded during the years ended 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Also, as a result of the refurbishment project work, we identified that approximately 30 percent of our ovens required a complete replacement of their oven floors and sole flues. We spent approximately $13.5 million during

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2014 in ongoing capital expenditures in connection with this work which we anticipate completing during 2015 with additional capital spending of approximately $2.5 million. We revised the estimated useful life of certain assets being replaced as part of this project, which resulted in additional depreciation of $7.4 million, or $0.11 per common share from continuing operations during 2014.
Interest Expense, net. Interest expense, net was $63.2 million, $52.3 million, and $47.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively, was impacted by the following items:
Total debt refinancing costs of $15.4 million, which includes an $11.4 million market premium to tender the senior notes, were recorded in 2014 compared to $3.7 million of debt refinancing costs recorded in 2013 and no debt refinancing costs in 2012; and
Interest of $3.2 million, $1.0 million and $0.1 million was capitalized in connection with the environmental remediation project during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Also impacting comparability between periods were changes in debt balances and interest rates. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements.
Noncontrolling Interest. Income attributable to noncontrolling interest was $24.3 million, $25.1 million and $3.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively, reflecting the impacts of the formation of the Partnership and the subsequent Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown transaction previously discussed. 
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth amounts from the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(Dollars in millions)
Revenues
 
Sales and other operating revenue
$
1,461.5

 
$
1,572.2

 
$
1,853.7

Other income, net
11.2

 
13.3

 
11.0

Total revenues
1,472.7

 
1,585.5

 
1,864.7

Costs and operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products sold and operating expenses
1,174.1

 
1,282.5

 
1,573.1

Selling, general and administrative expenses
75.9

 
89.4

 
79.0

Depreciation and amortization expenses
96.1

 
77.1

 
65.0

Asset impairment
16.8

 

 

Total costs and operating expenses
1,362.9

 
1,449.0

 
1,717.1

Operating income
109.8

 
136.5

 
147.6

Interest expense, net
63.2

 
52.3

 
47.6

Income before income tax expense and loss from equity method investment
46.6

 
84.2

 
100.0

Income tax expense
7.4

 
16.4

 
18.0

Loss from equity method investment
35.0

 
2.2

 

Income from continuing operations
4.2

 
65.6

 
82.0

(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of income tax benefit (expense) of $66.2 million, $9.7 million and ($5.3) million, respectively
(106.0
)
 
(15.5
)
 
20.5

Net (loss) income
(101.8
)
 
50.1

 
102.5

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
24.3

 
25.1

 
3.7

Net (loss) income attributable to SunCoke Energy, Inc.
$
(126.1
)
 
$
25.0

 
$
98.8


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Year Ended December 31, 2014 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2013
Revenues. Total revenues, net of sales discounts, were $1,472.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $1,585.5 million for the corresponding period of 2013. The decrease was due primarily to the pass-through of lower coal prices and lower coke sales volumes in our Domestic Coke segment. Additionally, operational inefficiencies caused by the refurbishment project at the Indiana Harbor facility had an adverse impact on production and yields as did severe weather during the first quarter of 2014. These decreases were partially offset by revenues from the new Coal Logistics business of $36.2 million in 2014 compared to $8.1 million in 2013, which only included four months of Coal Logistics revenues, and the absence of sales discounts in 2014 due to the expiration of the Granite City fuel tax credits in late 2013.
Costs and Operating Expenses. Total operating expenses were $1,362.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $1,449.0 million for the corresponding period of 2013. The decrease was the result of lower coal prices as well as transaction costs in 2013 related to the acquisition of the Coal Logistics business. The decrease was partially offset by additional depreciation at our Indiana Harbor facility and a $16.8 million impairment charge related to our coal preparation plant.
Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net was $63.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $52.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.  Comparability between periods was impacted by the financing activities previously discussed.
Income Taxes. Our effective tax rates were 15.8 percent and 19.5 percent in 2014 and 2013, respectively. Income tax expense from continuing operations decreased $9.0 million to $7.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $16.4 million for the corresponding period of 2013, which was primarily due to lower overall earnings as well as the enacted reduction in Indiana statutory tax rate, partially offset by the expiration of nonconventional fuel tax credits related to the Granite City facility.
Loss from Equity Method Investment. Loss from equity method investment was $35.0 million in 2014 compared to $2.2 million in 2013. During 2014, the Company recorded an other-than-temporary impairment charge of $30.5 million. Additionally, the prior year period was impacted by foreign exchange losses of $1.5 million compared to $0.3 million in the current year. We anticipate market conditions will continue to be challenging in 2015.
Loss from Discontinued Operations, net of tax. Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax was $106.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $15.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The average coal sales price decreased $18 per ton in 2014 compared to 2013 driving down results, which was partially offset by improvements in cash production costs per ton of $9 for 2014 compared to 2013. We ceased depreciation on our assets upon held for sale classification in the third quarter of 2014, resulting in depreciation expense of $10.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in loss from discontinued operations, net of tax was primarily due to impairment charges of $133.5 million, or $81.9 million, net of tax recorded in 2014.
Noncontrolling Interest. Income attributable to noncontrolling interest was $24.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. Comparability between periods was impacted by the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown activities previously discussed.
Year Ended December 31, 2013 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012
Revenues. Our total revenues, net of sales discounts, were $1,585.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $1,864.7 million for the corresponding period of 2012. The decrease was due primarily to lower coal prices. Lower volumes at Indiana Harbor further drove down revenues. These decreases were partially offset by increased operating expense recovery in our Domestic Coke segment as well as revenues from our new Coal Logistics segment and the absence of sales discounts in 2014 due to the expiration of the Haverhill fuel tax credits in late 2012.
Costs and Operating Expenses. Total operating expenses were $1,449.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $1,717.1 million for the corresponding period of 2012. The decrease in cost of products sold and operating expenses were driven primarily by reduced coal costs in our Domestic Coke segment. The decrease was partially offset by public company costs of the Partnership and acquisition costs. Additionally, depreciation and amortization expense increased due primarily to increased capital expenditures as well as accelerated depreciation of $9.5 million in 2013 compared to $2.2 million in 2012 recorded in connection with the refurbishment of our Indiana Harbor facility.
Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net was $52.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $47.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase was primarily due to debt refinancing costs of $3.7 million. The remaining increase of $1.0 million was primarily due to higher interest rates and commitment fees associated with our debt, partially offset by lower outstanding debt balances.

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Income Taxes. Our effective tax rates were 19.5 percent and 18.1 percent in 2013 and 2012, respectively. Income tax expense decreased $1.6 million to $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $18.0 million for the corresponding period of 2012, which was primarily due to lower overall earnings as well as higher earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests resulting from the Partnership offering in January 2013, partially offset by lower nonconventional fuel tax credits due to the expiration of the Haverhill credits.
Loss from Equity Method Investment. We recorded a $2.2 million loss from our equity method investment, which included a negative foreign currency impact of $1.5 million on imported coal purchases.
Performance in the period was affected by several factors including iron ore mining restrictions in India which limited steel production, a weak coke pricing environment due to increased competition from Chinese coke imports and a longer than expected process to secure working capital lines to support our coal procurement requirements.
Discontinued Operations, net of tax. Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax, was $15.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to a gain of $20.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, primarily due to the decline in average coal sales price of $49 per ton. The decrease was partially offset by an increase in tons sold to third parties and lower cash production costs of approximately $19 per ton, reflecting the progress of our coal action plan initiatives, which include idling mines, reducing staff and upgrading equipment. The absence of a $4.2 million favorable fair value adjustment on the HKCC contingent consideration in 2012 also contributed to the decrease.
Noncontrolling Interest. Income attributable to noncontrolling interest was $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $3.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase was primarily due to the IPO of the Partnership during the first quarter of 2013. Income attributable to the noncontrolling interest in the Partnership was approximately $24.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. This increase was partially offset by decreased performance at Indiana Harbor, which reduced noncontrolling interest by approximately $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the prior year.
Results of Reportable Business Segments
We report our business results through four segments:
Domestic Coke consists of our Jewell, Indiana Harbor, Haverhill, Granite City and Middletown cokemaking and heat recovery operations located in Vansant, Virginia; East Chicago, Indiana; Franklin Furnace, Ohio; Granite City, Illinois; and Middletown, Ohio, respectively.
Brazil Coke consists of our operations in Vitória, Brazil, where we operate a cokemaking facility for a Brazilian subsidiary of ArcelorMittal;
India Coke consists of our cokemaking joint venture with Visa Steel in Odisha, India.
Coal Logistics consists of our coal handling and blending service operations in East Chicago, Indiana; Ceredo, West Virginia; Belle, West Virginia; and Catlettsburg, Kentucky.
Our coke sales agreements in our Domestic Coke segment contain highly similar contract provisions. Specifically, each agreement includes:
Take-or-Pay Provisions. Substantially all of our coke sales at our domestic cokemaking facilities are under take-or-pay contracts that require us to produce the contracted volumes of coke and require the customer to purchase such volumes of coke up to a specified tonnage or pay the contract price for any tonnage they elect not to take. As a result, our ability to produce the contracted coke volume and performance by our customers are key determinants of our profitability. We generally do not have significant spot coke sales since our domestic capacity is consumed by long-term contracts; accordingly, spot prices for coke do not generally affect our revenues.
Coal Cost Component with Pass-Through Provisions. The largest cost component of our coke is the cost of purchased coal, including any transportation or handling costs. Under the contracts at our domestic cokemaking facilities, coal costs are a pass-through component of the coke price, provided that we realize certain targeted coal-to-coke yields. When targeted coal-to-coke yields are achieved, the price of coal is not a significant determining factor in the profitability of these facilities, although it does affect our revenue and cost of sales for these facilities in approximately equal amounts. However, to the extent that the actual coal-to-coke yields are less than the contractual standard, we are responsible for the cost of the excess coal used in the cokemaking process. Conversely, to the extent our actual coal-to-coke yields are higher than the contractual standard, we realize gains. As coal prices decline, the benefits associated with favorable coal-to-coke yields also decline. The coal component of the Jewell coke price is fixed annually for each calendar year based on the weighted-average contract price of third-party coal purchases at our Haverhill facility applicable to ArcelorMittal coke sales.

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Operating Cost Component with Pass-Through or Inflation Adjustment Provisions. Our coke prices include an operating cost component. Operating costs under four of our coke sales agreements are passed through to the respective customers subject to an annually negotiated budget in some cases subject to a cap annually adjusted for inflation, and we share any difference in costs from the budgeted amounts with our customers. Under our other two coke sales agreements, the operating cost component for our coke sales are fixed subject to an annual adjustment based on an inflation index. Beginning in 2015, the operating and maintenance cost recovery mechanism in our Indiana Harbor coke sales agreement will shift from an annually negotiated budget amount with a cap to a fixed recovery per ton. Accordingly, actual operating costs can have a significant impact on the profitability of all our domestic cokemaking facilities.
Fixed Fee Component. Our coke prices also include a per ton fixed fee component for each ton of coke sold to the customer, which is determined at the time the coke sales agreement is signed and is effective for the term of each sales agreement. The fixed fee is intended to provide an adequate return on invested capital to SunCoke and may differ based on investment levels, tax benefits and other considerations. The actual return on invested capital at any facility is based on the fixed fee per ton and favorable or unfavorable performance on pass-through cost items.
Tax Component. Our coke sales agreements also contain provisions that generally permit the pass-through of all applicable taxes (other than income taxes) related to the production of coke at our facilities.
Coke Transportation Cost Component. Where we deliver coke to our customers via rail, our coke sales agreements also contain provisions that permit the pass-through of all applicable transportation costs related to the transportation of coke to our customers.
Our domestic coke facilities have also realized certain federal income tax credits. Specifically, energy policy legislation enacted in August 2005 created nonconventional fuel tax credits for U.S. federal income tax purposes pertaining to a portion of the coke production at our Jewell cokemaking facility and all of the production at our Haverhill and Granite City cokemaking facilities. The credits covered a four-year period, effective the later of January 1, 2006 or the date any new facility is placed into service prior to January 1, 2010. The credits attributable to production from the second phase of our Haverhill expired in July 2012 and those attributable to production at our Granite City facility expired in November 2013. In 2013 and 2012, the value of these credits was approximately $15.55 and $15.29 per ton of coke produced at facilities eligible to receive credits, respectively.
We have shared a portion of the tax credits with our customers, through discounts to the sales price of coke. Sales price discounts provided to our customers in connection with sharing of nonconventional fuel tax credits, totaled $7.4 million and $11.2 million in the 2013 and 2012 periods, respectively. As a result of these discounts, our pre-tax results for these facilities reflect the impact of these sales discounts, while the actual tax benefits are reflected as a reduction of income tax expense. Accordingly, due to the expiration of the tax credits in 2013, the results of our Domestic Coke segment in 2014 have increased, but this increase is more than offset by the increase in our income tax expense.
Revenues from our Brazil segment are derived from licensing and operating fees based upon the level of production from a Brazilian subsidiary of ArcelorMittal. Our revenues also include the full pass-through of the operating costs of the facility. We also receive an annual preferred dividend on our preferred stock investment in the Brazilian project company that owns the facility. In general, the facility must achieve certain minimum production levels for us to receive the preferred dividend. In recent years, we have reduced production at our Brazilian cokemaking facility at the request of our customer. This decrease to production in prior years did not impact our ability to receive our preferred dividend. In 2014, production returned to historical levels.
Our India segment earnings are generated by our joint venture equity method investment in the VISA SunCoke cokemaking facility in Odisha, India, which is comprised of a 440 thousand ton heat recovery cokemaking facility and the facility's associated steam generation units. VISA SunCoke's cokemaking process utilizes heat recovery technology developed in China. VISA SunCoke strives to sell approximately one-third of its coke production and all of its steam production to VISA Steel with the remainder of the coke production being sold in the spot market.
Coal Logistics revenues are derived from services provided to steel, coke (including some of our domestic cokemaking facilities) and electric utility customers. Services provided to our domestic cokemaking facilities are provided under a contract with terms equivalent to those of an arm's-length transaction. We do not take possession of coal but instead act as intermediaries between coal producers and coal end users by providing transloading, storage and blending services to our customers on a per ton basis. Revenues are recognized when services are provided as defined by customer contracts.
Corporate and other expenses that can be identified with a segment have been included as deductions in determining operating results of our business segments, and the remaining expenses have been included in Corporate and Other. Certain legacy coal mining assets (i.e. coal preparation plant) and liabilities (i.e. black lung, workers' compensation, certain asset

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retirement obligations and net pension and other postretirement employee benefit obligations) are expected to be retained by the Company and are not part of the disposal group, and therefore are reported as continuing operations in Corporate and Other, along with their related costs.
Management believes Adjusted EBITDA is an important measure of operating performance and uses it as the primary basis for the Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") to evaluate the performance of each of our reportable segments. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered a substitute for the reported results prepared in accordance with GAAP. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” at the end of this Item.
Segment Operating Data
The following table sets forth financial and operating data for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(Dollars in millions, except per ton amounts)
Sales and other operating revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic Coke
$
1,388.3

 
$
1,528.7

 
$
1,816.8

Brazil Coke
37.0

 
35.4

 
36.9

Coal Logistics
36.2

 
8.1

 

Coal Logistics intersegment sales
18.8

 
5.5

 

Corporate and other intersegment sales
18.6

 
17.5

 
17.9

Elimination of intersegment sales
(37.4
)
 
(23.0
)
 
(17.9
)
Total sales and other operating revenue
$
1,461.5

 
$
1,572.2

 
$
1,853.7

Adjusted EBITDA(1):
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic Coke
$
247.9

 
$
243.2

 
$
249.3

Brazil Coke
18.9

 
16.1

 
11.9

India Coke
(3.1
)
 
0.9

 

Coal Logistics
14.3

 
4.7

 

Corporate and Other
(40.2
)
 
(43.1
)
 
(33.5
)
Total Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations
$
237.8

 
$
221.8

 
$
227.7

Legacy costs, net
(17.1
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(3.9
)
Adjusted EBITDA from discontinued operations
(10.0
)
 
(6.3
)
 
41.8

Adjusted EBITDA
$
210.7

 
$
215.1

 
$
265.6

Coke Operating Data:
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic Coke capacity utilization (%)
98

 
101

 
102

Domestic Coke production volumes (thousands of tons)
4,175

 
4,269

 
4,342

Domestic Coke sales volumes (thousands of tons)(2)
4,184

 
4,263

 
4,345

Domestic Coke Adjusted EBITDA per ton(3)
$
59.25

 
$
57.05

 
$
57.38

Brazilian Coke production—operated facility (thousands of tons)
1,516

 
876

 
1,209

Indian Coke sales volumes (thousands of ton)(4)
361

 
257

 

Coal Logistics Operating Data:
 
 
 
 
 
Tons handled (thousands of tons)
19,037

 
3,785

 

Coal Logistics Adjusted EBITDA per ton handled (5)
$
0.75

 
$
1.24

 
$

(1)
See definition of Adjusted EBITDA and reconciliation to GAAP at the end of this Item.
(2)
Excludes 22 thousand tons of consigned coke sales in the year ended December 31, 2013 and 73 thousand tons of consigned coke sales in the year ended December 31, 2012.
(3)
Reflects Domestic Coke Adjusted EBITDA divided by Domestic Coke sales volumes.
(4)
Represents 100% of VISA SunCoke sales volumes.
(5)
Reflects Coal Logistics Adjusted EBITDA divided by Coal Logistics tons handled.

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Analysis of Segment Results
Year Ended December 31, 2014 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2013
Domestic Coke
Sales and Other Operating Revenue
Sales and other operating revenue decreased $140.4 million, or 9.2 percent, to $1,388.3 million in 2014 compared to $1,528.7 million in 2013. The decrease was mainly attributable to the pass-through of lower coal prices, which contributed $149.8 million to the decrease. Operational inefficiencies at Indiana Harbor resulted in a decrease in volume of 60 thousand tons, lowering revenues by $20.1 million, partially offset by additional revenues of $7.5 million resulting from an increased fixed fee per ton of coke produced per the ten-year extension of its existing coke sales agreement, effective October 1, 2013. Lower volumes at Haverhill, due primarily to severe winter weather and planned outages, decreased revenues by $14.4 million. Sales also increased due to higher reimbursable operating and maintenance costs of $23.9 million and the absence of $7.2 million in sales discounts. The remaining increase of $5.3 million was primarily related to an additional 19 thousand tons sold at our remaining cokemaking facilities.
Adjusted EBITDA
Domestic Coke Adjusted EBITDA increased $4.7 million, or 1.9 percent, to $247.9 million in 2014 compared to $243.2 million in 2013. The new Indiana Harbor coke sales agreement resulted in additional Adjusted EBITDA of $7.5 million compared to the prior year. Also favorably impacting results in the current period was the absence of a $2.5 million quality claim recorded in the prior year. These increases were offset by operational inefficiencies at Indiana Harbor, caused by weather and the refurbishment project in the first quarter of 2014, which lowered Adjusted EBITDA by $3.5 million. Lower volumes at Haverhill, due primarily to severe winter weather, decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $5.4 million. Our remaining domestic cokemaking facilities operated at or above 100 percent utilization and sold an additional 19 thousand tons, which contributed approximately $1.6 million to Adjusted EBITDA. Lower coal-to-coke yields and a lower operating and maintenance cost reimbursement rate decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $3.0 million and $2.0 million, respectively. The remaining increase of $7.0 million primarily related to the absence of coke quality issues in 2014 and lower corporate allocation in 2014.
Depreciation and amortization expense, which was not included in segment profitability, increased $13.2 million, to $81.3 million in 2014 from $68.1 million in 2013, primarily due to capital expenditures related to the refurbishment as well as additional depreciation taken at our Indiana Harbor facility previously discussed.
Brazil Coke
Sales and Other Operating Revenue
Sales and other operating revenue increased $1.6 million, or 4.5 percent, to $37.0 million in 2014 compared to $35.4 million in 2013, driven primarily by an increase in volume of 640 thousand tons. The increase in volume was offset by higher pricing in 2013 due to the minimum guarantee fee arrangement that we have with our customer, as the customer requested lower production volumes in 2013.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA in the Brazil Coke segment increased $2.8 million, or 17.4 percent, to $18.9 million in 2014 compared to $16.1 million in 2013. The increase is primarily due to an increase in volume of 640 thousand tons and foreign currency impacts. Adjusted EBITDA in the prior year was also impacted by the minimum guarantee fee arrangement.
Depreciation expense, which was not included in segment profitability, was insignificant in both periods.
India Coke
We recognize our share of earnings in VISA SunCoke on a one-month lag and began recognizing such earnings in the second quarter of 2013. Our 49 percent share of Adjusted EBITDA in 2014 was a loss of $3.1 million compared to income of $0.9 million in 2013. Performance in the period was affected by a weak coke pricing environment due to increased Chinese coke imports, partially offset by lower foreign currency losses on imported coal purchases of $0.3 million in 2014 compared to $1.5 million in 2013.
Coal Logistics
Sales and Other Operating Revenue
We entered into the coal logistics business with two acquisitions in 2013. Inclusive of intersegment sales, sales and other operating revenue increased $41.4 million, to $55.0 million in 2014 compared to $13.6 million in 2013. Comparison between periods was impacted by the timing of acquisitions.

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Adjusted EBITDA
Coal Logistics Adjusted EBITDA was $14.3 million in 2014 compared to $4.7 million in 2013. Comparison between periods was impacted by the timing of acquisitions.
Depreciation and amortization expense, which was not included in segment profitability, was $7.6 million during 2014 compared to $1.8 million in 2013.
Corporate and Other
Corporate expenses decreased $2.9 million, or 6.7 percent, to $40.2 million in 2014 from $43.1 million in 2013. Prior year corporate costs included costs associated with the acquisitions of KRT and Lake Terminal, including the $1.8 million payment to DTE Energy Company concurrent with the acquisition of Lake Terminal. Additionally, the current year period includes cost savings related to lower bonus expense, which is partially offset by higher stock compensation expense. Charges related to the second quarter reduction in workforce at our corporate headquarters were largely offset by the related reduction in salaries during the remainder of 2014.
Depreciation expense, which was not included in segment profitability, of $6.7 million was comparable to the prior year period.
Analysis of Segment Results
Year Ended December 31, 2013 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012
Domestic Coke
Sales and Other Operating Revenue
Sales and other operating revenue decreased $288.1 million, or 15.9 percent, to $1,528.7 million in 2013 compared to $1,816.8 million in 2012. The decrease was mainly attributable to the pass-through of lower coal prices, which contributed $265.4 million to the decrease. Volumes at Indiana Harbor decreased 106 thousand tons, due in part to operational inefficiencies caused by the on-going refurbishment project, and adversely impacted revenues by $49.6 million. Our remaining domestic cokemaking facilities operated at or above 100 percent utilization and sold an additional 24 thousand tons, a portion of which was attributable to a fourth customer, and contributed approximately $13.6 million to revenues. Effective October 1, 2013, the Company entered into a 10-year extension of its existing Indiana Harbor coke sales agreement. The new coke sales agreement contains an increased fixed fee per ton of coke produced to recognize the additional capital being deployed and resulted in additional revenues of $3.3 million compared to the prior year. The remaining increase of $10.0 million was primarily due to increased operating cost recovery, a significant portion of which was related to the change from a fixed operating fee per ton to a budgeted amount per ton based on the full recovery of expected operation maintenance costs at our Middletown facility.
Adjusted EBITDA
Domestic Coke Adjusted EBITDA decreased $6.1 million, or 2.4 percent, to $243.2 million for 2013 compared to $249.3 million in 2012. The refurbishment at our Indiana Harbor facility resulted in lower volumes as well as lower operating expense recovery, which decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $17.3 million. The renewed Indiana Harbor coke sales agreement discussed above, contributed additional Adjusted EBITDA of $3.3 million compared to the prior year. Continued strong performance at our domestic cokemaking facilities resulted in higher volumes, which increased Adjusted EBITDA by $2.9 million. Additionally, our other facilities improved operating expense recovery, which increased Adjusted EBITDA by $7.4 million. The improved operating expense recovery was primarily the result of the change in our recovery mechanism at Middletown from a fixed operating fee per ton to a budgeted amount per ton which was based on the anticipated full recovery of expected operating costs. Improved coal-to-coke yields and higher energy sales increased Adjusted EBITDA by $9.8 million and $3.2 million, respectively. Other events impacting results were a customer quality claim that resulted in an estimated $2.5 million liability recorded in the current year as well as the absence of a favorable billing dispute settlement of $4.2 million in the prior year. The remaining decrease of $8.7 million was primarily related to lower breeze sales in 2013.
Depreciation and amortization expense, which is not included in segment profitability, increased $7.4 million, to $68.1 million in 2013 from $60.7 million in 2012, primarily due to accelerated depreciation taken in conjunction with the refurbishment of our Indiana Harbor facility. We revised the estimated useful life of certain assets resulting in additional depreciation of $9.5 million recorded during 2013, or $0.14 per common share. The prior year period included accelerated depreciation related to the Indiana Harbor refurbishment as well as accelerated depreciation at our Haverhill facility totaling $4.3 million, or $0.06 per common share.

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Brazil Coke
Sales and Other Operating Revenue
Sales and other operating revenue decreased $1.5 million, or 4.1 percent, to $35.4 million in 2013 compared to $36.9 million in 2012. The decrease is primarily due to the net effect of lower volumes of 333 thousand tons, which decreased operating revenues by approximately $10.2 million, offset by an increase in price of $8.7 million, which was driven by a minimum fee arrangement that we have with our customer.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA in the Brazil Coke segment increased $4.2 million, or 35.3 percent, to $16.1 million in 2013 compared to $11.9 million in 2012. The increase is primarily due to a favorable comparison to the prior year period, which contained a higher allocation of corporate costs of $2.8 million. The remaining increase is related to the minimum fee arrangement with our customer.
Depreciation expense, which was not included in segment profitability, was insignificant in both periods.
India Coke
We recognize our share of earnings in VISA SunCoke on a one-month lag and began recognizing such earnings in the second quarter of 2013. Our 49 percent share of Adjusted EBITDA in 2013 was $0.9 million and included a negative foreign currency impact of $1.5 million on imported coal purchases. Performance in the period was affected by several factors including iron ore mining restrictions in India, which limited steel production, a weak coke pricing environment due to increased competition from Chinese coke imports and a longer than expected process to secure working capital lines to support our coal procurement requirements.
Coal Logistics
We entered into the coal logistics business with two acquisitions in 2013. Inclusive of intersegment sales, sales and other operating revenue were $13.6 million and Adjusted EBITDA was $4.7 million in 2013.
Depreciation and amortization expense, which was not included in segment profitability was $1.8 million during 2013.
Corporate and Other
Corporate expenses increased $9.6 million, or 28.7 percent, to $43.1 million in 2013 compared to $33.5 million in 2012. The increase in corporate expenses was partly due to $2.4 million of public company costs associated with our master limited partnership and acquisition costs, including the $1.8 million payment to DTE concurrent with the acquisition of Lake Terminal. The remaining increase is due to various factors in 2014 including increased stock compensation and bonus expense and a change in estimated lease termination costs related to the move of our corporate headquarters in 2011.
Depreciation expense, which is not included in segment profitability, increased $2.8 million, to $6.8 million in 2013 from $4.0 million in 2012.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand, cash from operations and borrowings under debt financing arrangements. As of December 31, 2014, we had $139.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and $398.5 million of borrowing availability under our credit facilities. We believe these sources will be sufficient to fund our short- and long-term planned operations, including capital expenditures, stock repurchases and dividend payments. Our sources of liquidity as well as future borrowings or equity issuances may be necessary to fund growth opportunities.
On February 19, 2015, the Company's Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.0585 per share, which will be paid on March 26, 2015 to shareholders of record at the close of business on March 5, 2015. Our payment of dividends in the future, if any, will be determined by the Company's Board of Directors and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings, liquidity and capital requirements, covenants in our debt agreements and other factors.
In conjunction with the closing of the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown, the Partnership amended the Partnership Revolver to include (i) an increase in the total aggregate commitments from lenders from $150.0 million to $250.0 million and (ii) an extension of the maturity date from January 2018 to May 2019, which is included in the consolidated borrowing capacity above.
In January 2015, to fund the acquisition of a 75 percent interest in our Granite City cokemaking facility, the Partnership issued $200.0 million of add-on Partnership Notes due in 2020. Additionally, as part of the total transaction value, the Partnership assumed and repaid $135.0 million of the Company's Notes as well as $5.6 million of accrued interest and the applicable redemption premium of $7.7 million.

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As part of the $150.0 million share repurchase program described in Item 5., we repurchased 3.2 million shares at an average price of $23.28 per share, for an aggregate cost of $75.0 million during 2014. On January 28, 2015, we entered into a share repurchase agreement for the buyback of another $20.0 million of our common stock by the end of March 2015, leaving $55.0 million available under the repurchase program. The actual number of shares repurchased will be based on the volume-weighted average share price of our common stock less a pre-determined discount during the term of the agreement.
During 2014, under the terms of the Equity Agreement described in Item 5., the Partnership sold 62,956 common units with an aggregate offering price of $1.8 million, leaving $73.2 million available under the Equity Agreement. The Partnership intends to use the net proceeds from any sales pursuant to the Equity Agreement, after deducting Wells Fargo’s commissions and the Partnership’s offering expenses, for general partnership purposes, which may include repaying or refinancing all or a portion of the Partnership’s outstanding indebtedness and funding working capital, capital expenditures or acquisitions.
On November 15, 2014, Standard & Poor's (“S&P”) lowered its corporate credit rating on SunCoke Energy Inc. to 'B' from 'BB-'. The downgrade was driven by a change in methodology on master limited partnerships and general partnerships. S&P’s new methodology states that most general partners should be two to five notches below the rating of their respective master limited partnership given the subordinated structure of the general partner's cash flows. S&P’s belief is that given the dropdown intentions of the Company, it should be classified as a general partner and therefore should be two notches below the Partnership’s corporate rating ('BB-'). As this downgrade is the result of a change in S&P's methodology, rather than a change to the Company's performance, we do not expect this downgrade to have a material impact on our ability to access debt capital markets or our future borrowing costs.  Additionally, on January 31, 2015, Moody’s reaffirmed our 'Ba3' corporate credit rating. We believe the Company’s credit position and outlook has not changed.
The Company and the Partnership are subject to certain debt covenants that, among other things, limit the Company's and Partnership’s ability and the ability of certain of the Company's and the Partnership’s subsidiaries to (i) incur indebtedness, (ii) pay dividends or make other distributions, (iii) prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt, (iv) make loans and investments, (v) sell assets, (vi) incur liens, (vii) enter into transactions with affiliates and (viii) consolidate or merge. These covenants are subject to a number of exceptions and qualifications set forth in the respective agreements. Additionally, under the terms of the Credit Agreement, the Company is subject to a maximum consolidated leverage ratio of 3.75 to 1.00, calculated by dividing total debt by EBITDA as defined by the Credit Agreement, and a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 2.75 to 1.00, calculated by dividing EBITDA by interest expense as defined by the Credit Agreement. Under the terms of the Partnership Revolver, the Partnership is subject to a maximum consolidated leverage ratio of 4.00 to 1.00, calculated by dividing total debt by EBITDA as defined by the Partnership Revolver, and a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 2.50 to 1.00, calculated by dividing EBITDA by interest expense as defined by the Partnership Revolver. At December 31, 2014, the Company and the Partnership were in compliance with all applicable debt covenants contained in the Credit Agreement and the Partnership Revolver. We do not anticipate any violation of these covenants nor do we anticipate that any of these covenants will restrict our operations or our ability to obtain additional financing.
The following table sets forth a summary of the net cash provided by (used in) operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(Dollars in millions)
Net cash provided by continuing operating activities
$
130.0

 
$
156.7

 
$
144.0

Net cash used in continuing investing activities
(118.3
)
 
(313.3
)
 
(54.2
)
Net cash (used in) provided by continuing financing activities
(81.7
)
 
169.7

 
(10.3
)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents from discontinued operations
(24.6
)
 
(18.7
)
 
32.2

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
$
(94.6
)
 
$
(5.6
)
 
$
111.7

Cash Provided by Continuing Operating Activities
Net cash provided by continuing operating activities decreased by $26.7 million to $130.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to the prior year. The decrease in operating cash flow is the result of increased levels of coal inventory and lower accounts payable balances as compared to the prior year, partially offset by lower receivables related to an extension of customer terms at the end of 2013 and improved operating performance in our continuing operations.
Net cash provided by continuing operating activities increased by $12.7 million to $156.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to 2012. The increase in operating cash flow was the result of increases in accounts payable balances compared to the prior year, partially offset by decreases in accrued liabilities, increases in inventory balances and lower operating performance.

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Cash Used in Continuing Investing Activities
Cash used in continuing investing activities decreased $195.0 million to $118.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to the prior year. The prior year period includes expenditures of $67.7 million for our investment in the India joint venture, $28.6 million for the acquisition of Lake Terminal and $84.7 million for the acquisition of KRT. Capital expenditures also decreased by $14.0 million, primarily due to lower spending on the Indiana Harbor refurbishment in 2014 partially offset by higher spending on the environmental refurbishment project at Haverhill in 2014 as compared to 2013, related to the timing of spending on these projects.
Cash used in continuing investing activities increased $259.1 million to $313.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to 2012, primary as a result of the acquisitions discussed above. Additionally, capital expenditures increased $78.1 million in 2013 compared to 2012 primarily related to the refurbishment at our Indiana Harbor facility and environmental remediation project at Haverhill.
Cash Provided by (Used in) Continuing Financing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2014, net cash used in continuing financing activities was $81.7 million compared to net cash provided by continuing financing activities of $169.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. During 2014, in connection with the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown transaction, we received $90.5 million from the issuance of common units and $268.1 million from issuance of Partnership Notes, offset by repayment of $276.5 million of senior notes, debt issuance costs of $5.8 million and a $40.0 million net pay down the Partnership Revolver. During 2014, we also had share repurchases of $85.1 million, cash distributions of $32.3 million and dividend payments of $3.8 million, slightly offset by cash proceeds of $3.2 million primarily related to the exercise of stock options.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, net cash provided by continuing financing activities was $169.7 million compared to net cash used in continuing financing activities of $10.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. During 2013, we received proceeds of $237.8 million from the issuance of 13,500,000 common units in SunCoke Energy Partners, L.P., $150.0 million from the issuance of the Partnership Notes and $40.0 million from borrowing against the Partnership Revolver. These increases were partially offset by the repayment of $225.0 million of our Term Loan, debt issuance costs of $6.9 million, the repurchase of shares for $10.9 million and a cash distribution to noncontrolling interests of $17.8 million.
Cash (Used in) Provided by Discontinued Operations
Cash used in discontinued operations increased $5.9 million to $24.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to the prior year. The increase in cash used by discontinued operations was primarily attributable to continued declining sales prices, which were only partly mitigated by lower production costs.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, net cash used in discontinued operations was $18.7 million compared to net cash provided by discontinued operations of $32.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. This change was due to the decline in average coal sales price of $49 per ton, which was only partially mitigated by a decrease in cash production costs of $19 per ton.
Capital Requirements and Expenditures
Our operations are capital intensive, requiring significant investment to upgrade or enhance existing operations and to meet environmental and operational regulations. The level of future capital expenditures will depend on various factors, including market conditions and customer requirements, and may differ from current or anticipated levels. Material changes in capital expenditure levels may impact financial results, including but not limited to the amount of depreciation, interest expense and repair and maintenance expense.
Our capital requirements have consisted, and are expected to consist, primarily of:
ongoing capital expenditures required to maintain equipment reliability, the integrity and safety of our coke ovens and steam generators and to comply with environmental regulations. Ongoing capital expenditures are made to replace partially or fully depreciated assets in order to maintain the existing operating capacity of the assets and/or to extend their useful lives and also include new equipment that improves the efficiency, reliability or effectiveness of existing assets. Ongoing capital expenditures do not include normal repairs and maintenance expenses, which are expensed as incurred;
environmental remediation project expenditures required to implement design changes to ensure that our existing facilities operate in accordance with existing environmental permits; and
expansion capital expenditures to acquire and/or construct complementary assets to grow our business and to expand existing facilities as well as capital expenditures made to enable the renewal of a coke sales agreement and on which we expect to earn a reasonable return.

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The following table summarizes ongoing, environmental remediation project and expansion capital expenditures:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(Dollars in millions)
Ongoing capital
$
43.7

 
$
38.2

 
$
35.7

Environmental remediation project (1)
46.4

 
27.9

 
4.8

Expansion capital(2)
 
 
 
 
 
Indiana Harbor
24.2

 
66.2

 
13.7

Other capital expansion
4.0

 

 

Total expansion capital
28.2

 
66.2

 
13.7

Total capital expenditures from continuing operations
118.3

 
132.3

 
54.2

Capital expenditures on discontinued operations
6.9

 
13.3

 
29.9

Total capital expenditures
$
125.2

 
$
145.6

 
$
84.1

(1)
Includes capitalized interest of $3.2 million, $1.0 million and $0.1 million in 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
(2)
Excludes the investment in VISA SunCoke and the acquisitions of Lake Terminal and KRT.
In 2015, we expect our capital expenditures from continuing operations to be approximately $90 million, which is comprised of the following:
Total ongoing capital expenditures of approximately $45 million, of which $17 million will be spent at the Partnership;
Total capital expenditures on environmental remediation projects of approximately $30 million, all of which will be spent at the Partnership and was funded with a portion of the proceeds of the Partnership offering and subsequent asset dropdowns; and
Total expansion capital of approximately $15 million, of which approximately $6 million will be spent at the Partnership.
We do not anticipate any capital expenditures related to discontinued operations. We expect our ongoing capital expenditures to decrease and will be in the $30 million to $35 million range annually in 2016 and 2017. We expect that capital expenditures on remediation projects will be approximately $20 million in 2016. The amounts above exclude any capital expenditures related to our potential new facility in Kentucky.
In total, we anticipate spending a total of approximately $125 million in environmental remediation projects to enhance the environmental performance at our Haverhill and Granite City cokemaking operations. We have spent approximately $75 million related to these projects since 2012 and anticipate spending approximately $50 million in the 2015 to 2016 timeframe. A portion of the proceeds from the Partnership offering, the Haverhill and Middletown Dropdown and the Granite City Dropdown are being used to fund $119 million of these environmental remediation projects.

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Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations as of December 31, 2014:
 
 
 
Payment Due Dates
 
Total
 
2015
 
2016-2017
 
2018-2019
 
Thereafter
 
(Dollars in millions)
Total Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
$
640.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
240.0

 
$
400.0

Interest
243.1

 
49.4

 
98.8

 
92.4

 
2.5

Operating leases(1)
14.8

 
4.1

 
5.5

 
2.3

 
2.9
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