Document - 06.30.2014 - 10Q

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549

FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
ý
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2014.
or
o
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 
For the transition period from  _______________ to _______________


Commission File No. 1-13998
 
Insperity, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
 
76-0479645
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
19001 Crescent Springs Drive
 
 
Kingwood, Texas
 
77339
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code):  (281) 358-8986

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes ý  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes o No ý
 
As of July 25, 2014, 25,488,251 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Part I
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
Part II
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1a.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 6.


Table of Contents

PART I

ITEM 1.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands)

ASSETS
 
 
 
June 30,
2014
 
December 31, 2013
 
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
168,889

 
$
225,755

Restricted cash
 
53,441

 
51,928

Marketable securities
 
43,431

 
46,340

Accounts receivable, net:
 
 

 
 

Trade
 
3,459

 
7,453

Unbilled
 
216,602

 
199,628

Other
 
2,834

 
2,928

Prepaid insurance
 
24,813

 
10,638

Other current assets
 
13,076

 
12,053

Income taxes receivable
 
7,730

 
409

Deferred income taxes
 

 
8,185

Total current assets
 
534,275

 
565,317

 
 
 
 
 
Property and equipment:
 
 

 
 

Land
 
5,214

 
4,115

Buildings and improvements
 
68,453

 
67,939

Computer hardware and software
 
87,192

 
85,241

Software development costs
 
39,847

 
38,522

Furniture and fixtures
 
36,438

 
36,479

Aircraft
 
35,879

 
35,879

 
 
273,023

 
268,175

Accumulated depreciation and amortization
 
(189,771
)
 
(181,760
)
Total property and equipment, net
 
83,252

 
86,415

 
 
 
 
 
Other assets:
 
 

 
 

Prepaid health insurance
 
9,000

 
9,000

Deposits – health insurance
 
3,700

 
3,700

Deposits – workers’ compensation
 
90,032

 
81,878

Goodwill and other intangible assets, net
 
15,152

 
18,434

Other assets
 
1,845

 
1,816

Total other assets
 
119,729

 
114,828

Total assets
 
$
737,256

 
$
766,560


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Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Continued)
(in thousands)

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
June 30,
2014
 
December 31,
2013
 
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
 
$
1,821

 
$
2,678

Payroll taxes and other payroll deductions payable
 
109,164

 
165,604

Accrued worksite employee payroll cost
 
188,640

 
173,801

Accrued health insurance costs
 
21,324

 
5,103

Accrued workers’ compensation costs
 
54,744

 
52,930

Accrued corporate payroll and commissions
 
17,477

 
21,611

Other accrued liabilities
 
19,460

 
14,960

Total current liabilities
 
412,630

 
436,687

 
 
 
 
 
Noncurrent liabilities:
 
 
 
 

Accrued workers’ compensation costs
 
72,963

 
68,905

Deferred income taxes
 
4,293

 
7,696

Total noncurrent liabilities
 
77,256

 
76,601

 
 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies
 


 


 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 

 
 

Common stock
 
308

 
308

Additional paid-in capital
 
136,505

 
135,653

Treasury stock, at cost
 
(147,706
)
 
(138,688
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax
 
41

 
29

Retained earnings
 
258,222

 
255,970

Total stockholders’ equity
 
247,370

 
253,272

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
737,256

 
$
766,560

 
See accompanying notes.

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Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (gross billings of $3.281 billion, $3.167 billion, $6.869 billion and $6.499 billion less worksite employee payroll cost of $2.716 billion, $2.620 billion, $5.667 billion and $5.340 billion, respectively)
 
$
564,621

 
$
547,274

 
$
1,201,620

 
$
1,159,110

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct costs:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Payroll taxes, benefits and workers’ compensation costs
 
469,168

 
449,528

 
999,991

 
953,246

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit
 
95,453

 
97,746

 
201,629

 
205,864

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Salaries, wages and payroll taxes
 
47,829

 
45,689

 
98,861

 
93,900

Stock-based compensation
 
3,245

 
3,292

 
5,645

 
5,602

Commissions
 
3,717

 
3,533

 
6,963

 
6,740

Advertising
 
8,356

 
9,720

 
13,297

 
14,970

General and administrative expenses
 
21,116

 
20,039

 
43,848

 
42,025

Impairment charge
 
2,485

 

 
2,485

 

Depreciation and amortization
 
5,291

 
5,245

 
10,525

 
10,390

 
 
92,039

 
87,518

 
181,624

 
173,627

Operating income
 
3,414

 
10,228

 
20,005

 
32,237

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest, net
 
24

 
60

 
71

 
129

Other, net
 
12

 
(2,676
)
 
(14
)
 
(2,667
)
Income before income tax expense
 
3,450

 
7,612

 
20,062

 
29,699

Income tax expense
 
1,559

 
4,124

 
8,607

 
13,038

Net income
 
$
1,891

 
$
3,488

 
$
11,455

 
$
16,661

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Less distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities
 
(139
)
 
(124
)
 
(333
)
 
(481
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income allocated to common shares
 
$
1,752

 
$
3,364

 
$
11,122

 
$
16,180

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic net income per share of common stock
 
$
0.07

 
$
0.14

 
$
0.45

 
$
0.65

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted net income per share of common stock
 
$
0.07

 
$
0.14

 
$
0.45

 
$
0.65


See accompanying notes.

- 5 -

Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
1,891

 
$
3,488

 
$
11,455

 
$
16,661

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income:
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities, net of tax
 
15

 
(35
)
 
12

 
(19
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income
 
$
1,906

 
$
3,453

 
$
11,467

 
$
16,642

 
See accompanying notes.

- 6 -

Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2014
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
Common Stock Issued
 
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury Stock
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
 
Retained Earnings
 
Total
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2013
 
30,758

 
$
308

 
$
135,653

 
$
(138,688
)
 
$
29

 
$
255,970

 
$
253,272

Purchase of treasury stock, at cost
 

 

 

 
(14,740
)
 

 

 
(14,740
)
Exercise of stock options
 

 

 
(149
)
 
402

 

 

 
253

Income tax expense from stock-based compensation, net
 

 

 
(2
)
 

 

 

 
(2
)
Stock-based compensation expense
 

 

 
863

 
4,782

 

 

 
5,645

Other
 

 

 
140

 
538

 

 

 
678

Dividends paid
 

 

 

 

 

 
(9,203
)
 
(9,203
)
Unrealized gain on marketable securities, net of tax
 

 

 

 

 
12

 

 
12

Net income
 

 

 

 

 

 
11,455

 
11,455

Balance at June 30, 2014
 
30,758

 
$
308

 
$
136,505

 
$
(147,706
)
 
$
41

 
$
258,222

 
$
247,370

 
See accompanying notes.

- 7 -

Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
11,455

 
$
16,661

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 

 
 

Depreciation and amortization
 
10,539

 
10,377

Impairment charge
 
2,485

 
2,679

Amortization of marketable securities
 
1,006

 
1,029

Stock-based compensation
 
5,645

 
5,602

Deferred income taxes
 
4,775

 
2,281

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 

 
 

Restricted cash
 
(1,513
)
 
(318
)
Accounts receivable
 
(12,886
)
 
(10,018
)
Prepaid insurance
 
(14,175
)
 
(2,122
)
Other current assets
 
(1,023
)
 
267

Other assets
 
(8,128
)
 
(5,698
)
Accounts payable
 
(857
)
 
(1,055
)
Payroll taxes and other payroll deductions payable
 
(56,440
)
 
(48,852
)
Accrued worksite employee payroll expense
 
14,839

 
22,159

Accrued health insurance costs
 
16,221

 
(8,668
)
Accrued workers’ compensation costs
 
5,872

 
797

Accrued corporate payroll, commissions and other accrued liabilities
 
366

 
(2,003
)
Income taxes payable/receivable
 
(7,557
)
 
(4,259
)
Total adjustments
 
(40,831
)
 
(37,802
)
Net cash used in operating activities
 
(29,376
)
 
(21,141
)
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 

 
 

Marketable securities:
 
 

 
 

Purchases
 
(13,022
)
 
(45,642
)
Proceeds from dispositions
 

 
4,564

Proceeds from maturities
 
14,944

 
4,236

Property and equipment
 
(6,634
)
 
(6,640
)
Net cash used in investing activities
 
(4,712
)
 
(43,482
)

- 8 -

Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
 
Purchase of treasury stock
 
$
(14,740
)
 
$
(15,122
)
Dividends paid
 
(9,203
)
 
(8,694
)
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options
 
253

 
858

Income tax benefit from stock-based compensation
 
234

 
953

Other
 
678

 
577

Net cash used in financing activities
 
(22,778
)
 
(21,428
)
 
 
 
 
 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
 
(56,866
)
 
(86,051
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
 
225,755

 
264,544

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
168,889

 
$
178,493

 


See accompanying notes.

- 9 -

Table of Contents

INSPERITY, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
June 30, 2014
(Unaudited)


1.
Basis of Presentation

Insperity, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Insperity,” “we,” “our,” and “us”), provides an array of human resources (“HR”) and business solutions designed to help improve business performance.  Our most comprehensive HR business offering is provided through our professional employer organization (“PEO”) services, known as Workforce Optimization®, which encompasses a broad range of HR functions, including payroll and employment administration, employee benefits, workers’ compensation, government compliance, performance management, and training and development services.

In addition to Workforce Optimization, we offer Human Capital Management, Payroll Services, Time and Attendance, Performance Management, Organizational Planning, Recruiting Services, Employment Screening, Financial Services, Expense Management, Retirement Services and Insurance Services (collectively “Adjacent Businesses”), many of which are offered via desktop applications and software as a service (“SaaS”) delivery models.  These other products or services are offered separately, as a bundle, or along with Workforce Optimization.

The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Insperity and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned.  Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with our audited Consolidated Financial Statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013. Our Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2013 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information or footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.  Our Consolidated Balance Sheet at June 30, 2014 and our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six month periods ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, and our Consolidated Statement of Stockholders’ Equity for the six months ended June 30, 2014, have been prepared by us without audit.  In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows, have been made.

The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for a full year or of future operations.

2.
Accounting Policies

Health Insurance Costs

We provide group health insurance coverage to our worksite employees through a national network of carriers, including UnitedHealthcare (“United”), UnitedHealthcare of California, Kaiser Permanente, Blue Shield of California, HMSA BlueCross BlueShield, Unity Health Plan and Tufts, all of which provide fully insured policies or service contracts.

The policy with United provides the majority of our health insurance coverage.  As a result of certain contractual terms, we have accounted for this plan since its inception using a partially self-funded insurance accounting model.  Accordingly, we record the costs of the United plan, including an estimate of the incurred claims, taxes and administrative fees (collectively the “Plan Costs”) as benefits expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.  The estimated incurred claims are based upon: (i) the level of claims processed during the quarter; (ii) estimated completion rates based upon recent claim development patterns under the plan; and (iii) the number of participants in the plan, including both active and COBRA enrollees.  Each reporting period, changes in the estimated ultimate costs resulting from claim trends, plan design and migration, participant demographics and other factors are incorporated into the Plan Costs.


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Table of Contents

Additionally, since the plan’s inception, under the terms of the contract, United establishes cash funding rates 90 days in advance of the beginning of a reporting quarter.  If the Plan Costs for a reporting quarter are greater than the premiums paid and owed to United, a deficit in the plan would be incurred and a liability for the excess costs would be accrued in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.  On the other hand, if the Plan Costs for the reporting quarter are less than the premiums paid and owed to United, a surplus in the plan would be incurred and we would record an asset for the excess premiums in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.  The terms of the arrangement require us to maintain an accumulated cash surplus in the plan of $9.0 million, which is reported as long-term prepaid insurance.  In addition, United requires a deposit equal to approximately one day of claims funding activity, which was $3.5 million as of June 30, 2014, and is reported as a long-term asset.  As of June 30, 2014, Plan Costs were less than the net premiums paid and owed to United by $28.3 million.  As this amount is in excess of the agreed-upon $9.0 million surplus maintenance level, the $19.3 million balance is included in prepaid insurance, a current asset, in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.  The premiums owed to United at June 30, 2014 were $17.7 million, which is included in accrued health insurance costs, a current liability in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our benefits costs incurred in the first six months of 2014 included costs of $2.8 million for changes in estimated run-off related to 2013.

Workers’ Compensation Costs

Our workers’ compensation coverage has been provided through an arrangement with the ACE Group of Companies (“the ACE Program”) since 2007.  The ACE Program is fully insured in that ACE has the responsibility to pay all claims incurred regardless of whether we satisfy our responsibilities.  We bear the economic burden for the first $1 million layer of claims per occurrence, as well as a maximum aggregate amount of $5 million per policy year for those claims that exceed $1 million, and the insurance carrier bears responsibility for the claims in excess of such amounts.

Because we bear the economic burden for claims up to the levels noted above, such claims, which are the primary component of our workers’ compensation costs, are recorded in the period incurred.  Workers’ compensation insurance includes ongoing health care and indemnity coverage whereby claims are paid over numerous years following the date of injury.  Accordingly, the accrual of related incurred costs in each reporting period includes estimates, which take into account the ongoing development of claims and therefore requires a significant level of judgment.

We employ a third party actuary to estimate our loss development rate, which is primarily based upon the nature of worksite employees’ job responsibilities, the location of worksite employees, the historical frequency and severity of workers’ compensation claims, and an estimate of future cost trends.  Each reporting period, changes in the actuarial assumptions resulting from changes in actual claims experience and other trends are incorporated into our workers’ compensation claims cost estimates.  During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, we reduced our workers’ compensation costs by $2.0 million and $6.5 million, respectively, for changes in estimated losses related to prior reporting periods.  Workers’ compensation cost estimates are discounted to present value at a rate based upon the U.S. Treasury rates that correspond with the weighted average estimated claim payout period (the average discount rate utilized in 2014 and 2013 periods were 1.0% and 0.5%, respectively) and are accreted over the estimated claim payment period and included as a component of direct costs in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.

The following table provides the activity and balances related to incurred but not paid workers’ compensation claims:

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning balance, January 1,
 
$
120,833

 
$
111,685

Accrued claims
 
25,041

 
19,194

Present value discount
 
(898
)
 
(345
)
Paid claims
 
(18,572
)
 
(16,199
)
Ending balance
 
$
126,404

 
$
114,335

 
 
 
 
 
Current portion of accrued claims
 
$
53,441

 
$
47,467

Long-term portion of accrued claims
 
72,963

 
66,868

 
 
$
126,404

 
$
114,335


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The current portion of accrued workers’ compensation costs on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at June 30, 2014 includes $1.3 million of workers’ compensation administrative fees.

As of June 30, 2014 and 2013, the undiscounted accrued workers’ compensation costs were $136.3 million and $125.1 million, respectively.

At the beginning of each policy period, the insurance carrier establishes monthly funding requirements comprised of premium costs and funds to be set aside for payment of future claims (“claim funds”).  The level of claim funds is primarily based upon anticipated worksite employee payroll levels and expected workers’ compensation loss rates, as determined by the insurance carrier.  Monies funded into the program for incurred claims expected to be paid within one year are recorded as restricted cash, a short-term asset, while the remainder of claim funds are included in deposits, a long-term asset in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of June 30, 2014, we had restricted cash of $53.4 million and deposits of $90.0 million.

Our estimate of incurred claim costs expected to be paid within one year is recorded as accrued workers’ compensation costs and included in short-term liabilities, while our estimate of incurred claim costs expected to be paid beyond one year is included in long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.

3.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities

The following table summarizes our cash and investments in cash equivalents and marketable securities held by investment managers and overnight investments:

 
 
June 30,
2014
 
December 31,
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
Overnight Holdings
 
 
 
 
Money market funds (cash equivalents)
 
$
114,820

 
$
192,040

Investment Holdings
 
 

 
 

Money market funds (cash equivalents)
 
45,784

 
42,913

Marketable securities
 
43,431

 
46,340

 
 
204,035

 
281,293

Cash held in demand accounts
 
18,250

 
23,054

Outstanding checks
 
(9,965
)
 
(32,252
)
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
212,320

 
$
272,095

 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
168,889

 
$
225,755

Marketable securities
 
43,431

 
46,340

Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
212,320

 
$
272,095


Our cash and overnight holdings fluctuate based on the timing of clients’ payroll processing cycles.  Included in the cash balance as of June 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, are $95.3 million and $143.0 million, respectively, in funds associated with federal and state income tax withholdings, employment taxes and other payroll deductions, as well as $13.7 million and $24.5 million in client prepayments, respectively.

We account for our financial assets in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurement.  This standard defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.  The fair value measurement disclosures are grouped into three levels based on valuation factors:

Level 1 - quoted prices in active markets using identical assets
Level 2 - significant other observable inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other observable inputs
Level 3 - significant unobservable inputs

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The following table summarizes the levels of fair value measurements of our financial assets:

 
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
June 30,
2014
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market funds
 
$
160,604

 
$
160,604

 
$

 
$

Municipal bonds
 
43,431

 

 
43,431

 

Total
 
$
204,035

 
$
160,604

 
$
43,431

 
$

 
 
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
December 31,
2013
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market funds
 
$
234,953

 
$
234,953

 
$

 
$

Municipal bonds
 
46,340

 

 
46,340

 

Total
 
$
281,293

 
$
234,953

 
$
46,340

 
$


The municipal bond securities valued as Level 2 investments are primarily pre-refunded municipal bonds that are secured by escrow funds containing U.S. Government securities. Our valuation techniques used to measure fair value for these securities during the period consisted primarily of third party pricing services that utilized actual market data such as trades of comparable bond issues, broker/dealer quotations for the same or similar investments in active markets and other observable inputs.

The following is a summary of our available-for-sale marketable securities:

 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
June 30, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Municipal bonds
 
$
43,362

 
$
71

 
$
(2
)
 
$
43,431

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2013
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Municipal bonds
 
$
46,290

 
$
51

 
$
(1
)
 
$
46,340


As of June 30, 2014, the contractual maturities of our marketable securities were as follows:

 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
Less than one year
 
$
20,400

 
$
20,413

One to five years
 
22,962

 
23,018

Total
 
$
43,362

 
$
43,431



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4.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

During the second quarter of 2014, impairment indicators were identified in our Employment Screening business, which is a discrete reporting unit, due to changes in management, the reporting unit’s financial results and the loss of certain customers. As a result, we performed impairment tests for our Employment Screening business’ long-lived assets and goodwill and concluded that the assets were impaired. The impairments resulted primarily from lower projected revenue growth rates and profitability levels. Accordingly, we recognized intangible asset impairments of $0.7 million and, upon completion of step two of the goodwill impairment test, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $1.8 million in the second quarter of 2014. The fair values of the long-lived assets and reporting unit were estimated using discounted cash flow models, which we believe appropriately estimates the fair values of the long-lived assets and reporting unit. The material assumptions used in the models included the weighted average cost of capital and long-term growth rates.  We consider these to be Level 3 fair value measures.

The following table provides the gross carrying amount and accumulated amortization for each class of intangible assets and the gross carrying amount and accumulated impairment for goodwill:

 
 
December 31, 2013
 
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2014
 
June 30,
2014
 
 
Balance
 
Impairment
 
Amortization Expense
 
Balance
 
 
(in thousands)
Gross carrying amount:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trademarks
 
$
1,230

 
$
(1,010
)
 
$

 
$
220

Customer relationships
 
7,784

 
(1,392
)
 

 
6,392

Aggregate goodwill acquired:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Goodwill
 
21,156

 

 

 
21,156

Total
 
$
30,170

 
$
(2,402
)
 
$

 
$
27,768

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated amortization:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trademarks
 
$
(680
)
 
$
695

 
$
(61
)
 
$
(46
)
Customer relationships
 
(4,340
)
 
976

 
(736
)
 
(4,100
)
Accumulated impairment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Goodwill
 
(6,716
)
 
(1,754
)
 

 
(8,470
)
Total
 
$
(11,736
)
 
$
(83
)
 
$
(797
)
 
$
(12,616
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net carrying amount:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trademarks
 
$
550

 
$
(315
)
 
$
(61
)
 
$
174

Customer relationships
 
3,444

 
(416
)
 
(736
)
 
2,292

Goodwill
 
14,440

 
(1,754
)
 

 
12,686

Total goodwill and other intangible assets
 
$
18,434

 
$
(2,485
)
 
$
(797
)
 
$
15,152


5.
Other Assets
    
In 2011, we acquired a minority interest in The Receivables Exchange (“TRE”), an online marketplace for the sale of accounts receivable, for $2.8 million. In the second quarter of 2013, TRE issued similar securities at per share amounts substantially below the per share book value of our investment. Accordingly, we valued the investment based on a similar security market transaction, which is a Level 2 valuation technique. This resulted in a non-cash impairment charge of $2.7 million, which is included in other income (expense) in our Consolidated Statements of Operations, during the second quarter of 2013. Due to federal income tax limitations on capital losses, no tax benefit associated with the impairment was recognized.

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6.
Revolving Credit Facility

We have a $100 million revolving credit facility (the “Facility”), which may be increased to $150 million based on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the agreement relating to the Facility (the “Credit Agreement”). The Facility matures on September 15, 2015.  The Facility contains both affirmative and negative covenants, which we believe are customary for arrangements of this nature.  At June 30, 2014, we were in compliance with all financial covenants under the Credit Agreement and had not drawn on the Facility.

7.
Stockholders’ Equity

Our Board of Directors (the “Board”) has authorized a program to repurchase shares of our outstanding common stock (“Repurchase Program”).  The purchases are to be made from time to time in the open market or directly from stockholders at prevailing market prices based on market conditions and other factors. During the six months ended June 30, 2014, 383,898 shares were repurchased under the Repurchase Program and 112,328 shares not subject to the Repurchase Program were withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations for the vesting of restricted stock awards.  As of June 30, 2014, we were authorized to repurchase an additional 965,671 shares under the program.

The Board declared quarterly dividends as follows:
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(amounts per share)
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter
 
$
0.17

 
$
0.17

Second quarter
 
0.19

 
0.17


 During the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013, we paid dividends totaling $9.2 million and $8.7 million, respectively.

8.
Net Income per Share

We utilize the two-class method to compute net income per share.  The two-class method allocates a portion of net income to participating securities, which include unvested awards of share-based payments with non-forfeitable rights to receive dividends.  Net income allocated to unvested share-based payments is excluded from net income allocated to common shares.  Any undistributed losses resulting from dividends exceeding net income are not allocated to participating securities.  Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shares by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net income per share is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shares by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus the dilutive effect of outstanding stock options.


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The following table summarizes the net income allocated to common shares and the basic and diluted shares used in the net income per share computations:

 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
1,891

 
$
3,488

 
$
11,455

 
$
16,661

Less distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities
 
(139
)
 
(124
)
 
(333
)
 
(481
)
Net income allocated to common shares
 
$
1,752

 
$
3,364

 
$
11,122

 
$
16,180

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding
 
24,770

 
24,820

 
24,797

 
24,858

Incremental shares from assumed conversions of common stock options
 
4

 
24

 
5

 
27

Adjusted weighted average common shares outstanding
 
24,774

 
24,844

 
24,802

 
24,885

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Potentially dilutive securities not included in weighted average share calculation due to anti-dilutive effect
 

 
16

 

 
16


9.
Commitments and Contingencies

We are a defendant in various lawsuits and claims arising in the normal course of business.  Management believes it has valid defenses in these cases and is defending them vigorously.  While the results of litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, management believes the final outcome of such litigation will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.

Federal Unemployment Taxes

Employers in certain states are experiencing higher Federal Unemployment Tax Act (“FUTA”) tax rates as a result of certain states not repaying their unemployment loans from the federal government in a timely manner.  The Benefit Cost Ratio Add-On (“BCR”) is an additional tax on the FUTA wage base for employers in states that continue to have outstanding federal unemployment insurance loans beginning with the fifth year in which there is a balance due on the loan.  States had the option to apply for a waiver before July 1st of the year in which the BCR is applicable.  During the second quarter of 2014, Georgia, Missouri and Wisconsin repaid their unemployment loans. There are currently 11 states with outstanding unemployment loans and of those, all but one, Connecticut, have filed for the BCR waiver. Eleven states, including California, are at risk for assessment of the BCR in 2014.  We expect most states will be notified by the federal government in the fourth quarter of 2014 if a waiver has been granted in response to the state’s application.  The potential additional FUTA tax associated with worksite employees in these 11 states was approximately $3.8 million as of June 30, 2014.

Generally, our contractual agreements allow us to incorporate such increases into our service fees upon the effective date of the rate change.  However, our ability to fully adjust service fees in our billing systems and collect such increases over the remaining term of the customers’ contracts could be limited, resulting in a potential tax increase not being fully recovered.  As a result, if these FUTA tax increases are instituted and not collected from our clients, such increase could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.



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ITEM 2.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, as well as our Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

New Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). ASU No. 2014-09 outlines a single comprehensive revenue recognition model for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. Under ASU No. 2014-09, an entity recognizes revenue for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 is effective for annual reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, and early adoption is not permitted. Companies may use either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach to adopt ASU No. 2014-09. We are currently evaluating the guidance and have not determined the impact this standard may have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.


Results of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 2014 Compared to Three Months Ended June 30, 2013.

The following table presents certain information related to our results of operations:

 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands, except per share and statistical data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (gross billings of $3.281 billion and $3.167 billion, less worksite employee payroll cost of $2.716 billion and $2.620 billion, respectively)
 
$
564,621

 
$
547,274

 
3.2
 %
Gross profit
 
95,453

 
97,746

 
(2.3
)%
Operating expenses
 
92,039

(1) 
87,518

 
5.2
 %
Operating income
 
3,414

 
10,228

 
(66.6
)%
Other income (expense)
 
36

 
(2,616
)
(2) 
(101.4
)%
Net income
 
1,891

 
3,488

 
(45.8
)%
Diluted net income per share of common stock
 
0.07

 
0.14

 
(50.0
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statistical Data:
 
 

 
 

 
 

Average number of worksite employees paid per month
 
128,274

 
126,696

 
1.2
 %
Revenues per worksite employee per month(3)
 
$
1,467

 
$
1,440

 
1.9
 %
Gross profit per worksite employee per month
 
248

 
257

 
(3.5
)%
Operating expenses per worksite employee per month
 
239

 
230

 
3.9
 %
Operating income per worksite employee per month
 
9

 
27

 
(66.7
)%
Net income per worksite employee per month
 
5

 
9

 
(44.4
)%
 ____________________________________
 
(1) 
Includes a non-cash impairment charge of $2.5 million, or $0.06 per share. Please read Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” for additional information.

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(2) 
Includes the impact of a $2.7 million, or $0.10 per share, non-cash impairment charge in the second quarter of 2013. Please read Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Other Assets,” for additional information.

(3) 
Gross billings of $8,526 and $8,332 per worksite employee per month, less payroll cost of $7,059 and $6,892 per worksite employee per month, respectively.

Revenues

Our revenues for the second quarter of 2014 increased 3.2% over the 2013 period, primarily due to a 1.2% increase in the average number of worksite employees paid per month and a 1.9%, or $27, increase in revenues per worksite employee per month.

We provide our Workforce Optimization solution to small and medium-sized businesses in strategically selected markets throughout the United States. By region, our Workforce Optimization revenue change from the second quarter of 2013 and distribution for the quarters ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 were as follows:

 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
 
(% of total revenue)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Northeast
 
$
143,436

 
$
141,054

 
1.7
%
 
25.9
%
 
26.2
%
Southeast
 
55,210

 
51,435

 
7.3
%
 
10.0
%
 
9.6
%
Central
 
79,618

 
78,941

 
0.9
%
 
14.4
%
 
14.7
%
Southwest
 
151,238

 
148,042

 
2.2
%
 
27.3
%
 
27.5
%
West
 
124,903

 
119,082

 
4.9
%
 
22.4
%
 
22.0
%
 
 
554,405

 
538,554

 
2.9
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Other revenue(1)
 
10,216

 
8,720

 
17.2
%
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
 
$
564,621

 
$
547,274

 
3.2
%
 
 
 
 
_____________________________

(1)     Comprised primarily of revenues generated by Adjacent Businesses.

The percentage of total Workforce Optimization revenues in our significant markets include the following:
 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
Texas
 
25.2
%
 
25.5
%
California
 
17.7
%
 
17.6
%
New York
 
9.6
%
 
9.5
%
Other
 
47.5
%
 
47.4
%
Total
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%

Our Workforce Optimization growth rate is affected by three primary sources – worksite employees paid from new client sales, client retention and the net change in existing clients through worksite employee new hires and layoffs.  During the second quarter of 2014, we saw slight improvement in the net change in existing clients as compared with the second quarter of 2013, while worksite employees paid from new client sales and client retention remained flat compared to the second quarter of 2013.


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Gross Profit

Gross profit for the second quarter of 2014 decreased 2.3% compared to the second quarter of 2013 to $95.5 million.  The average gross profit per worksite employee decreased 3.5% to $248 per month in the 2014 period from $257 per month in the 2013 period.  Included in gross profit in the 2014 period is a $17 per worksite employee per month contribution from our Adjacent Businesses compared to $14 per worksite employee per month in the 2013 period.

Our pricing objectives attempt to maintain or improve the gross profit per worksite employee by increasing revenue per worksite employee to match or exceed changes in primary direct costs and operating expenses.  Our revenues during the second quarter of 2014 increased 1.9% per worksite employee per month over the second quarter of 2013. However, our direct costs, which primarily include payroll taxes, benefits and workers’ compensation expenses, increased 3.0% to $1,219 per worksite employee per month in the second quarter of 2014 versus $1,183 in the second quarter of 2013.  The primary direct cost components changed as follows:

Benefits costs – The cost of group health insurance and related employee benefits increased $27 per worksite employee per month, or 5.0% on a cost per covered employee basis over the second quarter of 2013. Our benefits costs incurred in the second quarter of 2014 included $3.3 million, or $9 per worksite employee per month, of additional taxes primarily due to new health care reform requirements. Also included in our benefits costs are reductions for lower than expected claim costs and premium taxes related to prior periods of $3.1 million, or $8 per worksite employee per month, in the second quarter of 2014 and $3.4 million, or $9 per worksite employee per month, in the second quarter of 2013. The percentage of worksite employees covered under our health insurance plans was 71.6% in the 2014 period and 72.1% in the 2013 period. Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies–Health Insurance Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for health insurance costs.

Workers’ compensation costs – Workers’ compensation costs increased $4 per worksite employee per month, or 13.8%, compared to the second quarter of 2013, primarily due to higher incurred claim levels.  As a percentage of non-bonus payroll cost, workers’ compensation costs were 0.62% in the 2014 period compared to 0.55% in the 2013 period. During the 2014 period, we recorded reductions in workers’ compensation costs of $1.1 million, or 0.04% of non-bonus payroll costs, for changes in estimated losses related to prior reporting periods, compared to $3.0 million, or 0.12% of non-bonus payroll costs in the 2013 period.  Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Workers’ Compensation Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for workers’ compensation costs.

Payroll tax costs – Payroll taxes increased 2.1%, or $4 per worksite employee per month, compared to the second quarter of 2013, primarily due to a 3.7% increase in total payroll costs. Payroll taxes as a percentage of payroll cost were 7.0% in the 2014 period and 7.1% in the 2013 period.

Operating Expenses

The following table presents certain information related to our operating expenses:

 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands)
(per worksite employee per month)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Salaries, wages and payroll taxes
 
$
47,829

 
$
45,689

 
4.7
 %
$
124

 
$
120

 
3.3
 %
Stock-based compensation
 
3,245

 
3,292

 
(1.4
)%
8

 
9

 
(11.1
)%
Commissions
 
3,717

 
3,533

 
5.2
 %
10

 
9

 
11.1
 %
Advertising
 
8,356

 
9,720

 
(14.0
)%
22

 
25

 
(12.0
)%
General and administrative expenses
 
21,116

 
20,039

 
5.4
 %
55

 
53

 
3.8
 %
Impairment charge
 
2,485

 

 

6

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
 
5,291

 
5,245

 
0.9
 %
14

 
14

 

Total operating expenses
 
$
92,039

 
$
87,518

 
5.2
 %
$
239

 
$
230

 
3.9
 %


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Operating expenses increased 5.2% to $92.0 million compared to $87.5 million in the second quarter of 2013.  We recorded impairment charges of $2.5 million in our Employment Screening reporting unit in the second quarter of 2014. Please read Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” for additional information. Operating expenses per worksite employee per month increased to $239 in the 2014 period from $230 in the 2013 period.  The components of operating expenses changed as follows:

Salaries, wages and payroll taxes of corporate and sales staff increased 4.7%, or $4 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to a 3.5% rise in headcount.

Stock-based compensation decreased 1.4%, or $1 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period. Stock-based compensation expense represents amortization of restricted stock awards granted to employees.

Commissions expense increased 5.2%, or $1 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to commissions associated with our Adjacent Businesses.

Advertising costs decreased 14.0%, or $3 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to lower media advertising costs in the 2014 period.

General and administrative expenses increased 5.4%, or $2 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to increased costs in professional services related to our investment in Human Capital Management technology.

Other Income (Expense)

Other expense decreased $2.7 million in the second quarter of 2014 compared to the second quarter of 2013, primarily due to the non-cash impairment charge related to our minority investment in The Receivables Exchange in the second quarter of 2013. Please read Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Other Assets,” for additional information.

Income Tax Expense

Our effective income tax rate was 45.2% in the 2014 period compared to 54.2% in the 2013 period.  Our provision for income taxes differed from the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to state income taxes, non-deductible expenses, and the effects of the impairment charges recorded during the period. The effect of the non-cash impairment charges on the income tax rates for the 2014 and 2013 periods was 3.5% and 14.1%, respectively.

Operating and Net Income

Operating and net income per worksite employee per month was $9 and $5 in the 2014 period, versus $27 and $9 in the 2013 period.


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Results of Operations

Six Months Ended June 30, 2014 Compared to Six Months Ended June 30, 2013.

The following table presents certain information related to our results of operations:

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands, except per share and statistical data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (gross billings of $6.869 billion and $6.499 billion, less worksite employee payroll cost of $5.667 billion and $5.340 billion, respectively)
 
$
1,201,620

 
$
1,159,110

 
3.7
 %
Gross profit
 
201,629

 
205,864

 
(2.1
)%
Operating expenses
 
181,624

(1) 
173,627

 
4.6
 %
Operating income
 
20,005

 
32,237

 
(37.9
)%
Other income (expense)
 
57

 
(2,538
)
(2) 
(102.2
)%
Net income
 
11,455

 
16,661

 
(31.2
)%
Diluted net income per share of common stock
 
0.45

 
0.65

 
(30.8
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statistical Data:
 
 

 
 

 
 

Average number of worksite employees paid per month
 
127,281

 
125,044

 
1.8
 %
Revenues per worksite employee per month(3)
 
$
1,573

 
$
1,545

 
1.8
 %
Gross profit per worksite employee per month
 
264

 
274

 
(3.6
)%
Operating expenses per worksite employee per month
 
238

 
231

 
3.0
 %
Operating income per worksite employee per month
 
26

 
43

 
(39.5
)%
Net income per worksite employee per month
 
15

 
22

 
(31.8
)%
 ____________________________________
 
(1) 
Includes a non-cash impairment charge of $2.5 million, or $0.06 per share in the second quarter of 2014. Please read Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” for additional information.

(2) 
Includes the impact of a $2.7 million, or $0.10 per share, non-cash impairment charge in the second quarter of 2013. Please read Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Other Assets,” for additional information.

(3) 
Gross billings of $8,994 and $8,663 per worksite employee per month, less payroll cost of $7,421 and $7,118 per worksite employee per month, respectively.

Revenues

Our revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2014 increased 3.7% over the 2013 period, primarily due to a 1.8% increase in the average number of worksite employees paid per month and a 1.8%, or $28, increase in revenues per worksite employee per month.


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We provide our Workforce Optimization solution to small and medium-sized businesses in strategically selected markets throughout the United States. By region, our Workforce Optimization revenue change from the first six months of 2013 and distribution for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 were as follows:

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
(in thousands)
 
(% of total revenue)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Northeast
 
$
309,298

 
$
303,344

 
2.0
%
 
26.2
%
 
26.6
%
Southeast
 
115,835

 
107,121

 
8.1
%
 
9.8
%
 
9.4
%
Central
 
170,016

 
168,691

 
0.8
%
 
14.4
%
 
14.8
%
Southwest
 
320,752

 
312,102

 
2.8
%
 
27.1
%
 
27.3
%
West
 
266,059

 
250,771

 
6.1
%
 
22.5
%
 
21.9
%
 
 
1,181,960

 
1,142,029

 
3.5
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Other revenue(1)
 
19,660

 
17,081

 
15.1
%
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
 
$
1,201,620

 
$
1,159,110

 
3.7
%
 
 
 
 
_____________________________

(1)     Comprised primarily of revenues generated by Adjacent Businesses.

The percentage of total Workforce Optimization revenues in our significant markets include the following:
 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
Texas
 
25.1
%
 
25.4
%
California
 
17.8
%
 
17.5
%
New York
 
9.9
%
 
9.7
%
Other
 
47.2
%
 
47.4
%
Total
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%

Our Workforce Optimization growth rate is affected by three primary sources – worksite employees paid from new client sales, client retention and the net change in existing clients through worksite employee new hires and layoffs.  During the first six months of 2014, we saw slight improvement in worksite employees paid from new client sales as compared with the first six months of 2013, while client retention remained flat and the net change in existing clients declined modestly compared to the first six months of 2013.

Gross Profit

Gross profit for the first six months of 2014 decreased 2.1% compared to the first six months of 2013 to $201.6 million.  The average gross profit per worksite employee decreased 3.6% to $264 per month in the 2014 period from $274 per month in the 2013 period.  Included in gross profit in the 2014 period is a $16 per worksite employee per month contribution from our Adjacent Businesses compared to $14 per worksite employee per month in the 2013 period.

Our pricing objectives attempt to maintain or improve the gross profit per worksite employee by increasing revenue per worksite employee to match or exceed changes in primary direct costs and operating expenses.  Our revenues during the first six months of 2014 increased 1.8% per worksite employee per month as compared to the first six months of 2013. However, our direct costs, which primarily include payroll taxes, benefits and workers’ compensation expenses, increased 3.0% to $1,309 per worksite employee per month in the first six months of 2014 versus $1,271 in the first six months of 2013.  The primary direct cost components changed as follows:


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Benefits costs – The cost of group health insurance and related employee benefits increased $30 per worksite employee per month, or 5.2% on a cost per covered employee basis compared to the first six months of 2013. Our benefits costs incurred in the first six months of 2014 included costs of $2.8 million, or $4 per worksite employee per month, for changes in estimated run-off related to 2013. However, in 2013 benefits costs included a reduction of $3.4 million, or $5 per worksite employee per month, for lower than expected claim costs and premium taxes related to prior periods. In addition $5.4 million, or $7 per worksite employee per month, of additional taxes were included in the 2014 period, primarily due to new health care reform requirements.  The percentage of worksite employees covered under our health insurance plans was 72.0% in the 2014 period compared to 72.3% in the 2013 period. Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies–Health Insurance Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for health insurance costs.

Workers’ compensation costs – Workers’ compensation costs increased $6 per worksite employee per month, or 19.0%, compared to the first six months of 2013, primarily due to higher incurred claim levels.  As a percentage of non-bonus payroll cost, workers’ compensation costs were 0.63% in the 2014 period compared to 0.54% in the 2013 period. During the 2014 period, we recorded reductions in workers’ compensation costs of $2.0 million, or 0.04% of non-bonus payroll costs, for changes in estimated losses related to prior reporting periods, compared to $6.5 million, or 0.14% of non-bonus payroll costs in the 2013 period.  Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Workers’ Compensation Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for workers’ compensation costs.

Payroll tax costs – Payroll taxes increased 2.2%, or $2 per worksite employee per month, compared to the first six months of 2013, primarily due to a 6.1% increase in total payroll costs offset by lower state unemployment tax rates. Payroll taxes as a percentage of payroll cost were 8.0% in the 2014 period compared to 8.3% in the 2013 period.

Operating Expenses

The following table presents certain information related to our operating expenses:

 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands)
 
(per worksite employee per month)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Salaries, wages and payroll taxes
 
$
98,861

 
$
93,900

 
5.3
 %
 
$
129

 
$
125

 
3.2
 %
Stock-based compensation
 
5,645

 
5,602

 
0.8
 %
 
7

 
7

 

Commissions
 
6,963

 
6,740

 
3.3
 %
 
9

 
9

 

Advertising
 
13,297

 
14,970

 
(11.2
)%
 
18

 
20

 
(10.0
)%
General and administrative expenses
 
43,848

 
42,025

 
4.3
 %
 
58

 
56

 
3.6
 %
Impairment charge
 
2,485

 

 

 
3

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
 
10,525

 
10,390

 
1.3
 %
 
14

 
14

 

Total operating expenses
 
$
181,624

 
$
173,627

 
4.6
 %
 
$
238

 
$
231

 
3.0
 %

Operating expenses increased 4.6% to $181.6 million compared to $173.6 million in the six months ended 2013. We recorded impairment charges of $2.5 million in our Employment Screening reporting unit in the second quarter of 2014. Please read Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” for additional information. Operating expenses per worksite employee per month increased to $238 in the 2014 period from $231 in the 2013 period.  The components of operating expenses changed as follows:

Salaries, wages and payroll taxes of corporate and sales staff increased 5.3%, or $4 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to a 4.0% rise in headcount.

Stock-based compensation increased 0.8%, but remained flat on a per worksite employee per month basis, compared to the 2013 period.  Stock-based compensation expense represents amortization of restricted stock awards granted to employees.

Commissions expense increased 3.3%, but remained flat on a per worksite employee per month basis, compared to the 2013 period.

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Advertising costs decreased 11.2%, or $2 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to lower media advertising costs in the 2014 period.

General and administrative expenses increased 4.3%, or $2 per worksite employee per month, compared to the 2013 period, primarily due to increased spending in professional services related to our investment in Human Capital Management technology.

Depreciation and amortization expense increased 1.3%, but remained flat on a per worksite employee per month basis compared to the 2013 period.

Other Income (Expense)

Other expense decreased $2.6 million in the first six months of 2014 compared to the first six months of 2013, primarily due to the non-cash impairment charge related to our minority investment in The Receivables Exchange in 2013. Please read Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Other Assets,” for additional information.

Income Tax Expense

Our effective income tax rate was 42.9% in the 2014 period compared to 43.9% in the 2013 period.  Our provision for income taxes differed from the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to state income taxes, non-deductible expenses, and the effects of the impairment charges recorded during the period. The effect of the non-cash impairment charges on the income tax rates for the 2014 and 2013 periods was 0.7% and 3.6%, respectively.

Operating and Net Income

Operating and net income per worksite employee per month was $26 and $15 in the 2014 period, versus $43 and $22 in the 2013 period.

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

Non-bonus payroll cost is a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes the impact of bonus payrolls paid to our worksite employees.  Bonus payroll cost varies from period to period, but has no direct impact to our ultimate workers’ compensation costs under the current program.  As a result, our management refers to non-bonus payroll cost in analyzing, reporting and forecasting our workers’ compensation costs.  Non-GAAP financial measures are not prepared in accordance with GAAP and may be different from non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies.  Non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP.  We include these non-GAAP financial measures because we believe they are useful to investors in allowing for greater transparency related to the costs incurred under our current workers’ compensation program.  Investors are encouraged to review the reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measures used to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures as provided in the table below.


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Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
2014
 
2013
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands, except per worksite employee per month data)
GAAP to non-GAAP reconciliation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Payroll cost (GAAP)
 
$
2,716,514

 
$
2,619,690

 
3.7
%
 
$
5,667,082

 
$
5,340,202

 
6.1
%